句子的种类介绍

2018-05-12 优美句子

  (一)按使用目的可分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句。

  1) 陈述句(Declarative Sentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。

  Light travels faster than sound. 光比声速度快。 (说明事实)

  The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。

  (说明看法)

  2) 疑问句(Interrogative Sentences):提出问题。有以下四种:

  a. 一般疑问句(General Questions):

  Can you finish the work in time?

  你能按时完成工作吗?

  b. 特殊疑问句(W Questions; H Questions):

  Where do you live? 你住那儿?

  How do you know that? 你怎么知道那件事?

  c. 选择疑问句(Alternative Questions):

  Do you want tea or coffee?

  你是要茶还是要咖啡?

  d. 反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):

  He doesn't know her, does he?

  他不认识她,对不对?

  3) 祈使句(Imperative Sentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令,例如:

  Sit down, please. 请坐。

  Don't be nervous! 别紧张!

  4) 感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪,例如:

  What good news it is! 多好的消息啊!

  (二)句子按其结构可以分为以下三类:

  1) 简单句(Simple Sentences):只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句,例如:

  She is fond of collecting stamps. 她喜欢集邮。

  (主) (谓)

  2) 并列句(Compound Sentences):包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接,例如:

  The food was good, but he had little appetite.

  (主) (谓) (主)(谓)

  食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口。

  3) 复合句(Complex Sentences):包含一个主句从句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从句由从属连词引导,例如:

  The film had begun when we got to the cinema.

  主句 从句

  我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了。

  (三)基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns):英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的:

  1)主 + 动(SV)例如:

  I work. 我工作。

  2)主 + 动 + 表(SVP)例如:

  John is busy. 约翰忙。

  3)主 + 动 + 宾(SVO)例如:

  She studies English. 她学英语。

  4)主 + 动 + 宾 + 补(SVOC)例如:

  Time would prove me right. 时间会证明我是对的。

  5)主 + 动 + 间宾 + 直宾(SVOiOd)例如:

  My mother made me a new dress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。

  英语语法经典例题800例:非谓语动词(例题1)

  【导语】英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。为大家整理了英语语法大全,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助。更多内容尽在。

  1. Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could _______ a good college.

  A. enter B. to enter

  C. entering D. entered

  【陷阱】容易误选A。有的同学一看到空格前的情态动词 could 就断定此处应填动词原形 enter。

  【分析】其实正确答案应是B。此句为省略句,即在 could 后省略了动词 do,若把句子补完整应为Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could do to enter a good college。即句中的不定式短语(to enter a good college)是用作目的状语的,而不是与情态动词(could)一起构成谓语。请再看类似例句:

  (1) They did what they could to comfort her. 他们尽量安慰她。

  (2) They did everything they could to save her life. 他们尽一切力量拯救她的性命。

  (3) He studies as hard as he could to catch up with his classmates. 他拼命学习以便赶上他的同学。

  值得指出的是,这也并不是说今后只要遇到类似结构的题就一定选带to不定式。请看以下试题:

  (4) He ran as fast as he could _____ to catch the early bus.

  A. to hope B. hope

  C. hoping D. hoped

  此题的答案是 C不是A,其中的现在分词短语 hoping to catch the early bus 用作伴随状语。

  (5) He spent every minute he could _____ spoken English.

  A. practise B. to practise

  C. practising D. practised

  此题答案选 C,这与前面动词 spent 的搭配有关,即 spend … (in) doing sth。若将此句补充完整,即为 He spent every minute he could spend in practising spoken English.

  (6) Before going abroad he devoted all he could ____D____ his oral English.

  A. improve B. to improve

  C. improving D. to improving

  此题答案选D,注意两点:一是 devote … to … 是固定搭配,意为“把……贡献给……”;二是其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时要用动名词。

  2. He knows nothing about it, so he can’t help _______ any of your work.

  A. doing B. to do

  C. being doing D. to be done

  【陷阱】容易误选B,根据 can’t help doing sth 这一结构推出。

  【分析】其实答案应选A。比较以下结构:

  can’t help to do sth = 不能帮助做某事

  can’t help doing sth = 禁不住做某事,情不自禁地做某事

  又如下面一题,答案也是 B:

  She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy making a cake.

  A cleaning B. to clean

  C. cleaned D. being cleaned

  再请看以下试题:

  While shopping, people sometimes can’t help _____ into buying something they don’t really need.

  A. to persuade B. persuading

  C. being persuaded D. be persuaded

  此题应选C,句中的 can’t help 意为“禁不住”(注意根据句意用被动形式)。

  3. All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films.

  A. devoted to do B. devoted to doing

  C. devoting to doing D. is devoted to doing

  【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

  【分析】此题最佳答案为B。现分析如下:

  (1) devote 意为“致力于,献身于”,主要用 devote…to…或be devoted to,其中的to 是介词,不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不用不定式。

  (2) 选A错误:若将 do 改为 doing 则可以。

  (3) 选B正确:all her time devoted to doing experiments为独立主格结构,用作状语。

  (4) 选C错误:因为all her time 与 devote 为被动关系,故应将devoting改为devoted。

  (5) 选D错误:若单独看 All her time is devoted to doing experiments,此句并没有错,但问题是逗号前后两个简单句没有必要的连接方式,所以从整体上看仍不对,假若在后一句的句首加上and或so,则可选D,或将D将中的is 改为 being也可选它。

  英语语法经典例题800例:虚拟语气(例题)

  【导语】英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。为大家整理了英语语法大全,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助。更多内容尽在。

  1. I forget where I read the article, or I _____ it to you now.

  A. will show B. would show

  C. am going to show D. am showing

  【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

  【分析】正确答案选B。根据上文的语境可知句中的` or 隐含有一个虚拟的条件,即 or=if I didn’t forget where I read the article(要是我没忘记我在哪儿读过这篇文章的话——但事实上忘了)。

  2. “It looks as if he were drunk.” “So it does. _____.”

  A. He’d better give up drinking

  B. He shouldn’t have drunk so much

  C. Health is more important than drink

  D. I wonder why he is always doing so

  【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选,主要是受句中 drunk 一词的影响。

  【分析】最佳答案为D。关键信息是It looks as if he were drunk 中的虚拟语气,句子既然用了虚拟语气,也就是说,“他喝醉了”不是事实,只是他的言行好像是醉了,所以此题的最佳答案是D。

  3. “Mary looks hot and dry” “So _____ you if you had so high a fever.”

  A. do B. are

  C. will D. would

  【陷阱】容易误选A或C。选A者,认为前后两句的动词性质应一致;选C者,认为其后带有if 条件状语从句,从语气上看,主句应用将来时态。

  【分析】此题最佳答案为D。分析如下:

  (1) “so + 助动词 + 主语”是一个很有用的结构,它表示“……也一样”时。如:

  He likes to watch TV, and so do I. 他喜欢看电视,我也一样。

  When animals and plants disappear, so will man. 当动植物消失的时候,人类也会随之消失。

  (2) 由于空格后的 if 条件状语从句的谓语用的是虚拟语气(这是很重要的信息),所以主句要用 would 而不用 will,即答案应选D。

  英语语法经典例题800例:强调句(例题)

  【导语】英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。为大家整理了英语语法大全,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助。更多内容尽在。

  1. ____ that caused him to serve dinner an hour later than usual.

  A. It was we being late B. It was our being late

  C. It was we were too late D. It was because we were late

  【陷阱】此题容易误选D,认为强调的是原因状语从句 because we were late。

  【分析】但实际上,此题的答案为B,强调的是句子主语 our being late,此题若还原成非强调句,即为:

  Our being late caused him to serve dinner an hour later than usual.

  注意,强调句的一个显著特点是,若去掉强调结构 it is [was]… that…,句子仍然成立;换句话说,该结构中的 that 不能充当句子成分。

  2. “How was ______ they discovered the entrance to the underground palace?” “Totally by chance.”

  A. it that B. he that

  C. it when D. he which

  【陷阱】几个干扰项均可能误选。

  【分析】答案选A,为强调句的特殊疑问句形式,其相应的陈述句形式为:

  It was totally by chance that they discovered the entrance to the underground palace.

  比较以下各题,它们也属强调句的特殊疑问句形式:

  (1) Who was it _____ saved the drowning girl?

  A. since B. as C. that D. he

  答案选C,被强调成分为 who,该句实为类似 It was Tom that saved the drowning girl. 这类强调句的特殊疑问句形式(即对其中的Tom 提问而得)。

  (2) What is it _____ his daughter needs most?

  A. what B. which C. that D. if

  答案选C,被强调成分为 what,该句实为类似 It is a bike that his daughter needs most. 这类强调句的特殊疑问句形式(即对其中的a bike 提问而得)。

  3. _____ was very ______ that little Jim wrote the letter.

  A. It, careful B. It, carefully

  C. He, careful D. He, carefully

  【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选,但最有可能误选的可能是A,认为这是一个普通的系表结构,即认为第二空要填形容词作表语。

  【分析】其实,此题是一个强调句,其非强调形式为 Little Jim wrote the letter very carefully. 若用 it is … that… 的强调句式强调其中的状语 very carefully 即为上面一题的题干,所以答案应选B。请看下面几例,也属强调结构:

  (1) It was when she was about to go to bed ______ the telephone rang.

  A. since B. as C. that D. then

  答案选C,被强调成分为 when she was about to go to bed 这一时间状语从句。

  (2) It may have been at Christmas _____ John gave Mary a handbag.

  A. before B. who C. that D. when

  答案选C,被强调成分为 at Christmas,其中的动词 be 采用了 may have been 这一较为复杂的形式。

  4. “Where did you find the professor who made the speech yesterday?” “It was in the hall ______ the students

  often have a meeting.”

  A. where B. which

  C. that D. when

  【陷阱】很可能误选C,认为这是一个强调句,强调地点状语 in the hall。

  【分析】假若选C,即有 It was in the hall that the students often have a meeting,该句的意思是“学生们通常是在

  大厅开会”,单独看这一句,无论是其意思还是其语法均未错,但若将其与上文联系起来看,则不通,因为上文的意思是“你是在

  哪儿找到昨天作报告的那位教授的?”假若将答句改为 It was in the hall that I found the professor,则完全可以。

  其实,此题的最佳答案是A,where the students often have a meeting 为定语从句,用以修饰其前的名词 the hall,句意

  为“是在学生们经常开会的那个大厅(找到教授的)”,这样语意就通顺了。

  5. It was what he meant rather than what he said ______ annoyed me.

  A. which B. as

  C. what D. that

  【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

  【分析】此题为一个强调句型,空格处应填 that (即选D),被强调成分为 what he meant rather than what he said。句意

  为“让我生气的不是他说的话,而是他话中的意思”。请再看两例:

  (1) It was his nervousness in the interview ______ probably lost him the job.

  A. which B. since C. that D. what

  答案选C,为强调句型,被强调成分为 his nervousness in the interview,句意为“很可能是面试时表现出紧张,使他失去

  了这份工作”。

  (2) It is the ability to do the job ______ matters not where you come from or what you are.

  A. one B. that C. what D. it

  答案选B,为强调句型,被强调成分为 the ability to do the job,句意为“重要的是你做工作的能力,而不是你来自何地

  或你是从事什么工作的”。

  英语语法大全经典例题800例:名词性从句(例题)

  【导语】英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。为大家整理了英语语法大全,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助。更多内容尽在。

  ◆典型陷阱题分析◆

  1. She was so angry and spoke so fast that none of us understood _______ he said meant.

  A. that B. what

  C. that that D. what what

  【陷阱】可能误选B。许多同学一看选项首先就排除了C和D,认为这样两个“引导词”叠用的情况不太可能。在A和B两个选项中,选项A肯定不行,因为它引导宾语从句时不能充当句子成分,所以便选择了B。

  【分析】正确答案选 D。第一个what 用作动词 meant 的宾语,第二个what 用作动词 said 的宾语,即在 none of us understood what what he said meant 中,none of us understood 为主句,what what he said meant 为宾语从句,而在此宾语从句中又包括有 what he said 这样一个主语从句。

  2. After _______ had happened he could not continue to work there.

  A. which B. how

  C. what D. having

  【陷阱】可能误选A。

  【分析】最佳答案选 C。有的同学误选A,是因为认为介词后应接关系代词 which,但实际上,若填关系代词,其前没有先行词,这根据不是一个定语从句。另外,由于 had happened 缺主语,所以B和D也不能选。请再做下面一题(答案选B):

  He pointed to ______ looked like a tomb and said, “Ghost.”

  A. that B. what

  C. which D. as

  3.“Is ______ you want to say?” asked the teacher.

  A. this B. that

  C. all that D. that all

  【陷阱】根据中文字面意思误选A或B。

  【分析】最佳答案选 D。假若选A或B,那么转换成陈述句即为:This is you want to say. / That is you want to say. 显然句中的两个谓语动词 is与want相冲突。选D组成的句子是 Is that all you want to say? 其中的that 为句子主语,all 为表语,you want to say 为定语从句,用以修饰all。

  4. “When ______ leave for Japan?” “When ______ leave for Japan is kept secret.”

  A. they will, will they B. will they, they will

  C. they will, they will D. will they, will they

  【陷阱】可能误选D,认为 when 后应用疑问句词序。

  【分析】最佳答案选 B。第一个when引出的是一个特殊疑问句,故用疑问词序;第二个 when 引出的是主语从句,故其后用陈述句词序。请做以下试题(答案选C):

  (1) None knows if _______ that boy, but if _______ him, her parents will be disappointed.

  A. she will marry, she will marry B. she marries, she marries

  C. she will marry, she marries D. she marries, she will marry

  (2) “Where _______ go to work?” “Where _______ go to work is not known.”

  A. we shall, we shall B. shall we, shall we

  C. shall we, we shall D. we shall, shall we

  5. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see ______.

  A. who is he B. who he is

  C. who is it D. who it is

  【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

  【分析】此题最佳答案为D。首先可以排除A和C,因为空格处实为一个宾语从句,所以不能用疑问句词序。另一方面,但按英语习惯,当用于指代身份不明的人时,要用代词it,而不用 he 或she等。比较以下两句:

  Mr Smith is at the door. He wants to see you. 史密斯先生在门口,他想见你。

  Someone is at the door. It may be the postman. 有个人在门口,可能是邮递员。

  第一句因前面指明了是 Mr Smith,所以后面用代词 he;而第二句因前面用的是不定代词 someone,说明此人身份尚不明确,故其后用了代词 it 来指代。

  6. Don’t you know, my dear friend, ______ it is your money not you that she loves?

  A. who B. which

  C. that D. what

  【陷阱】此题容易误选 A或B:选 A 的同学认为这是指人的,故用who;选B的同学认为这是非限制性定语从句,两者都是误认为这是定语从句(注意没有先行词)。

  【分析】其实答案应选C。that引导的是一个宾语从句,用作动词 know 的宾语,它只是被句中的插入语 my dear friend 隔开罢了。请做以下试题(答案均为C):

  (1) Everyone knows, perhaps except you, _______ your girl-friend is a cheat.

  A. who B. which

  C. that D. what

  (2) I think, though I could be mistaken, ______ she liked me.

  A. who B. which

  C. that D. what

  (3) He told me the news, believe it or not, ______ he had earned $1 000 in a single day.

  A. that B. which

  C. as D. because

  前面两题 that 引导宾语从句,后面一题 that同位语从句(修饰the news)。

  英语语法大全:特殊同位语归纳

  英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。为大家整理了英语语法大全,本章主要介绍英语语法中的句子成分,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助。更多内容尽在。

  特殊同位语归纳

  当两个词或词组在一个句子中具有相同的语法地位而且描述相同的人或事物时,我们称它们为同位语。基本形式的同位语大家一般不会出错,但有几种同位语,或由于本身结构特殊,或由于它修饰的成分结构比较特殊,往往会引起误解。现小结并举例说明如下,希望引起同学们的注意。

  1. 代词we, us, you等后接同位语

  Are you two reading? 你们二人在看书吗?

  They three joined the school team. 他们3人参加了校队。

  She has great concern for us students. 她对我们学生很关心。

  He asked you boys to be quiet. 他要你们男孩子安静些。

  We girls often go to the movies together. 我们女孩子经常一起去看电影。

  2. 不定式用作同位语

  Soon came the order to start the general attack. 很快下达了发起总攻的命令。(to start the general attack与the order同位)

  He followed the instruction to walk along a certain street where I picked him up. 他照吩咐沿某一条街走,我在那里接他上了车。(to walk along…与the instruction同位)

  3. -ing分词用作同位语

  He's getting a job tonight driving a truck. 他今晚得到一个开卡车的差事。(driving a track与a job同位)

  She got a place in a laundry ironing shirts. 她在一家洗衣店得到一个熨衣服的职位。(ironing shirts与a place同位)

  The first plan, attacking at night, was turned down. 第一个计划是夜袭,被拒绝了。(attacking at night与the first plan同位)

  4. 形容词用作同位语

  The current affair, the biggest in its history, is being held in Guangzhou. 目前的交易会,是有史以来规模最大的,正在广州举行。

  He read all kinds of books, ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign. 他读了很多书,古今中外都有。

  People, old and young, took to the streets to watch the parade. 老老少少的人都来到街头观看游行。

  【注】这类同位语与定语比较接近,可转换成定语从句。如:

  The current affair, the biggest in its history, is being held in Guangzhou.

  =The current affair, which is the biggest in its history, is being held in Guangzhou.

  5. none of us之类的结构用作同位语

  We none of us said anything. 我们谁也没说话。

  We have none of us large appetites. 我们谁饭量都不大。

  They neither of them wanted to go. 他们两人都不想去。

  They've neither of them succeeded in winning her confidence. 他们两人谁也没能赢得她的信任。

  【注】同位语并不影响其后句子谓语的“数”,如:

  学生每人都有一本词典。

  正:The students each have a dictionary.

  误:The students each has a dictionary.

  请比较下面一句(谓语用了单数,因为each为句子主语):

  正:Each of the students has a dictionary.

  6. 从句用作同位语(即同位语从句)

  They were worried over the fact that you were sick. 他们为你生病发愁。

  I received a message that she would be late. 我得到的信息说她可能晚到。

  The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true. 明天放假的消息不实。

  The idea that you can do this work without thinking is wrong. 你可以不动脑筋做此工作的想法是错误的。

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4.交际礼仪的种类介绍

5.介绍信种类

6.读书笔记种类介绍

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8.几种类型的个人简历介绍

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