高一英语公开课课件

2018-02-22 课件

  【一】分词作状语的区别

  (1)现在分词与过去分词作状语的区别。

  现在分词做状语与过去分词做状语的最主要区别在于两者与所修饰的主语的主动与被动关系的区别。

  1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是主动关系。

  He went out ,shutting the door behind him.

  他出去后将门随手关上。

  Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help.

  由于不知如何办是好,他去找父母帮忙。

  2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系是被动关系。

  Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.

  如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。

  Faced with difficulties, we must try to overcome them.

  在遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克服。

  Caught in a heavy rain, he was all wet.

  Given more encouragement, the boy could have behaved better

  2)分词作状语放在句子开头,除表示原因之外有时表示时间或条件。动词不定式作状语时,除了表示目的以外,还表示结果或原因。

  Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch.由于在专心读书,他忘了吃午饭的时间。(原因)

  Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔细读书时,发现了一些从前不知道的东西。(时间)

  Reading carefully,you'll learn something new.只要你仔细阅读,你会学到一些新的东西。(条件)

  作宾补时,如果动词和宾语之间是主动关系,用现在分词; 如果是被动关系或者表示状态,用过去分词

  we left him crying outside the gate.

  we found his hands tied behind his back.

  we found the world outside changed. 状态

  用过去分词还是现在分词做定语的判断关键:名词与该动作的关系

  【二】分词作定语的区别

  1. 现在分词做定语:

  从功能上看,现在分词做定语表示 1)主动(及物);2)进行(不及物)。

  做定语:相当于一个定语从句 (主动)

  Do you know the boy standing at the door?

  à Do you know the boy who is standing at the door?

  A developing country needs aids. àA country that/which is developing needs aids.

  They lived in a house facing the south

  àThey lived in a house that faced the south.

  The man wearing a red tie is our head.

  àThe man who wears a red tie(戴红领带) is our head.

  The workers working in the factory are well-paid.

  àThe workers who are working in the factory are well-paid.

  在这家工厂工作的工人报酬很好

  2.过去分词做定语

  从功能上看,过去分词做定语表示1)被动(及物);2)完成(不及物)。

  做定语:相当于一个定语从句(被动),有时侯也表示完成的

  The broken window was repaired this morning.

  The window broken yesterday was….

  àThe window that/which was broken yesterday was…..昨天被打破的玻璃今早被修好了

  The sold hamburgers are not to my taste.

  The hamburgers sold in this chain are not to…..这家连锁店卖的汉堡不适合我的口味

  The hamburgers that/which are sold in this chain are not to….

  The arrived guests will be led in.(此过去分词表示完成)

  The guests arrived just now will….刚到的客人将会被带进来

  The guests who arrived just now will be….

  The book that was written by Wang sells well.

  àThe book written by Wang sells well.

  The tie that is worn by our head is made in Shanghai.

  àThe tie worn by our head is made in SH

  The shoes (that were) made in a small factory are of bad quality.小厂产的鞋子质量差

  反之,一个定语从句可以转化为分词做定语的结构

  The man I introduced to you yesterday had just returned from Japan.

  The man introduced to you by me yesterday had just…昨天我给你介绍的那人刚从日本回来

  He is a man who is loved by all. à He is a man loved by all. 他是个大家所热爱的人

  The leaves that have fallen are collected by the cleaners. àThe fallen leaves are collected…

  That letter I received last week was from Li. à The letter received last week was from Li.

  【三】状语从句的省略

  一般说来省略现象多出现在下列五种状语从句中:由 when ,while ,as ,before, after , till, until, once等引导的时间状语从句;由whether ,if , unless 等引导的条件状语从句;由 though , although ,even if ,whatever等引导的让步状语从句;由 as ,than 等引导的比较状语从句;由as, as if , as though 等引导的方式状语从句。上述状语从句在省略时,并非任何成分都可以省略而是遵循下面原则:

  (1)当状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致时且从句中含有BE动词的某种形式时,可以省略状语从句的主语和系动词be ,这时从句中可出现如下结构:

  ① 连词(as, as if , once)+ 名词

  如:Once (he was)a worker ,Pang Long now becomes a famous singer .庞龙曾经是个工人,现在变成一位著名的歌手。

  ②连词( though, whether , when)+形容词

  如:Work hard when (you are) young ,or you'll regret.趁年轻要努力学习,要不然你会后悔的。

  ③连词(whether, as if ,while )+介词短语

  如:He looked everywhere as if (he was)in search of something .他到处看似乎在找什么东西。

  ④连词(when , while , though )+ 现在分词

  如:While (he was) holding talks with President Hu Jintao , US President George W. Bush thanked China for its important role in the Six-Party Talks.美国总统布什在与主席会谈时,感谢中国在六方会谈中起的重要作用。

  ⑤ 连词(when ,if ,even if ,unless ,once ,until, than , as ) + 过去分词

  如:The exhibition is more interesting than (it was) expected .这次展览比被预料的有趣的多

  ⑥ 连词(as if ,as though ) + 不定式

  如:Olympic gold medallist hurdler Liu Xiang opened his lips as if (he were) to speak .奥林匹克金牌获得者跨栏运动员刘翔张开嘴好象要说什么。

  (2)当从句的主语与主句的主语不一致,但从句主语是 it,从句中又含有系动词be 的某种形式时 ,可以把it和系动词be一起省略。。如:Unless (it is) necessary ,you'd better not refer to the dictionary.如果没有必要,你最好不要查字典。

  各种状语从句的省略现象列举如下:

  一、时间状语从句中的省略

  When (she was) very young, she began to learn to play the piano. 她很小时,就开始学习弹钢琴。

  While (I was) at college, I began to know him, a strange but able student. 我在上大学时就开始认识他,一个奇怪但有能力的学生。

  When arriving, send me a telegram. (When you arrive, send me a telegram.) 到达之后,来个电报。

  Before leaving, turn off all the lights. (Before you leave, turn off all the lights.) 走之前,请关闭所有的灯。

  Don’t come in until (you are) asked to. 不叫你请你不要进来。

  Whenever (it is )possible, you should come and help. 不管什么时候只要有可能就来帮忙。

  You should let us know the result as soon as(it is) possible. 你应尽快让我们知道结果。

  注:as在引导时间状语从句时,没有这种省略现象。我们不可说As walking, she found a nice shining thing on the ground.

  二、地点状语从句中的省略

  地点状语从句的省略常用下列结构:where(ver) possible, where(ver) necessary,

  Lay these books where possible you can find them easily. 把这些书放在你可能容易找到的地方。

  Put in articles wherever necessary in the following passages. 在下列文章中需要的地方填入冠词。

  三、条件状语从句中的省略

  常用的句型是:if necessary, if possible, if true, if anyone等。如:

  Send the goods now if (they are) ready. 货物如果准备好了,请送过来。

  He will come if (he is) asked. 如果叫他来,他就来。

  If (it is) necessary, ring me at home. 如果有可能,朝我家里打电话。

  Come along with me if (it is) possible. 如果有可能和我一起去吧.。

  If (it is) true, this will casue us a lot of trouble. 如果是真的,这会给我们带来很多麻烦。

  There are few people nowadays, if (there are) any, who remember him. 很少有人能记起他。

  You should stay where you are, unless (you are) asked to leave. 你应呆在你现在的地方不动,除非叫你动。

  四、让步状语从句中的省略

  He is a good man, though sometimes (he is) rather dull. 他真是个好人,尽管有时有点无聊。

  Even if (I am ) invited to, I won’t go to such a bad lecture. 即使邀我去,我都不想听如此坏的报告。

  五、比较状语从句中的省略

  She can play the piano just as wonderfully as you (do). 她钢琴弹的我你弹的.一样好。

  She has finished the work earlier than (it has been ) expected.

  【四】with复合结构

  with结构是许多英语复合结构中最常用的一种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、不定式复合结构、动名词复合结构和独立主格结构均能起很重

  要的作用。本文就此的构成、特点及用法等作一较全面阐述,以帮助同学们掌握这一重要的语法知识。

  一、 with结构的构成

  它是由介词with或without+复合结构构成,复合结构作介词with或without的复合宾语,复合宾语中第一部分宾语由名词或代词充当,第二

  部分补足语由形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词充当,分词可以是现在分词,也可以是过去分词。With结构构成方式如下:

  1. with或without-名词/代词+形容词;

  2. with或without-名词/代词+副词;

  3. with或without-名词/代词+介词短语;

  4. with或without-名词/代词 +动词不定式;

  5. with或without-名词/代词 +分词。

  下面分别举例:

  1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.(with+名词+形容词,作伴随状语)

  2、 With the meal over , we all went home.(with+名词+副词,作时间状语)

  3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。(with+名词+介词短语,作伴随状语。) The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand.

  4、He lay in the dark empty house,with not a man ,woman or child to say he was kind to me.(with+名词+不定式,作伴随状语) He could not finish it without me to help him.(without+代词 +不定式,作条件状语)

  5、She fell asleep with the light burning.(with+名词+现在分词 ,作伴随状语) Without anything left in the cupboard, shewent out to get something to eat.(without+代词+过去分词,作为原因状语)

  二、with结构的用法

  在句子中with结构多数充当状语,表示行为方式,伴随情况、时间、原因或条件(详见上述例句)。

  With结构在句中也可以作定语。例如:

  1.I like eating the mooncakes with eggs.

  2.From space the earth looks like a huge water-covered globe with a few patches of land sticking out above the water.

  3.A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house.

  三、 with结构的特点

  1. with结构由介词with或without+复合结构构成。复合结构中第一部分与第二部分语法上是宾语和宾语补足语关系,而在逻辑上,却具有主谓关系,也就是说,可以用第一部分作主语,第二部分作谓语,构成一个句子。例如: With him taken care of,we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)→(He was taken good care of.) She fell asleep with the light burning. →(The light was burning.) With her hair gone,there could be no use for them. →(Her hair was gone.)

  2. 在with结构中,第一部分为人称代词时,则该用宾格代词。例如: He could not finish it without me to help him.

  四、 几点说明:

  1. with结构在句子中的位置: with 结构在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、原因时一般放在句子前面,并用逗号与句子分开;表示方式和伴随状况时一般放在句子后面,不用逗号分开。若with结构作定语,则放在所修饰的名词之后,一般不用逗号隔开。

  2. with结构作状语时,不定式、现在分词 、和过去分词的区别: 在with结构中,不定式、现在分词作宾补,表示主动,但是不定式表示将要发生的动作,而现在分词表示正在发生或发生了的动作;过去分词表示被动或完成。

  例如: With the boy leading the way,we found he house easily.(小男孩已领过路)

  With the boy to lead the way,we will find the house easily tomorrow.(小男孩明天将领路)

  He lay on the bed with the bedroom door shut.(寝室被关着)

  3. with结构与一般的with短语的区别: with结构具有上述功能和特点,而"介词with+名词或代词(组)"组成的一般的with短语在句子中可以作定语和状语。作状语时,它能表示动作的方式、原因,但不能表示时间、伴随和条件。在一般的with短语中,with后面所跟的不是复合结构,也根本没有逻辑上的主谓关系。

  4. with结构与独立主格结构的关系: with结构属于独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without引导,名词前有冠词、形容词、所有格代词或其它词类所修饰,结构较松散;而独立主格结构没有with或without引导,结构严密,名词前可用可不用修饰语。在句法功能上,with结构可以作定语,独立主格结构则不能;独立主格结构通常在句中作状语,但也可以作主语,而with结构则不能。

  独立主格在口语中不常用,往往由一个从句代替,而with结构较口语化,较常用。例如:

  There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.("with+复合宾语"结构,在句中作定语)

  A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.(名词+现在分词构成的独立主格结构,作主语)

  The boy said,turning to the man,his eyes opened wide and his hand raised.(独立主格结构,表示伴随状况或行为方式,作状语)

  Then last night,I followed him here,and climbed in,sword in hand.(名词+介词短语构成的独立主格结构,作状语,表示伴随情况) board, she went out to get something to eat.(without+代词+过去分词,作为原因状语)

  1. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work _______, he gladly accepted it.(2007 安徽)

  A. finished             B. finishing

  C. having finished       D. was finished

  2.----Come on, please give me some ideas about the project.

  ----Sorry. With so much work _______ my mind, I almost break down.  (2007  福建)

  A. filled                       B. filling

  C. to fill                       D. being filled

  3.I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise _______.(2005 北京)

  A. going on                   B. goes on

  C. went on                    D. to go on

  4.________ two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend.(2004 北京)

  A. With         B. Besides

  C. As for         D/ Because of

  5.It was a pity that the great writer died _______ his works unfinished.(2004 福建)

  A. for                 B. with

  C. from                D. of

  6. The young woman _______ a baby sleeping in her arms was wandering in the street.

  A. with          B.because      C. on             D. like

  7. Everyone should go to sleep with the light turned off.

  A. as            B. with         C. for            D. on

  8. _______ so many homework to do, Mary won’t have time to play with her friends this morning.

  A. Without      B. With        C. By          D. Because

  9. _______ the door open, the noise of the machines is almost deafening.

  A. Because        B. As         C. With            D. Because of

  10. _______ his mother out, he had to stay at home alone.

  A. As        B.For          C. Because          D. With

  11. _______ all things considered, her proposal is of greater than his

  A. Like        B.With          C. On          D. Without

  12. _______ time permitting, we will visit the Summer Palace.

  A. By         B. On          C. With          D. As

  参考答案:1-5ABAAB

  6-12ABBCDBC

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