I.修改病句(15 points，3 points each)
Correct the errors in the following sentences.
Example: After seeing an offensive mouthwash ad on television. I resolved never to buy that brand again.
After seeing an offensive mouthwash ad on television，I resolved never to buy that brand again.
11. Mr. Baker used to teach arts in Memorial High School I used to be a student there.
12. My parents bought a house from a man with no inside plumbing.
13. The World Wide Web is easy to use. Loaded with links and graphics.
14. To please the children，some fireworks were set off a day earlier.
15. The tribe emphasized collective survival，mutual aid and being responsible for one another.
II.重写句子(15 points，1.5 points each)
Revise each of the following sentences according to the requirement in brackets.
Example: The history of English words is the history of our civilization in many ways. (periodic sentence)
In many ways, the history of English words is the history of our civilization.
1. Learning a new language demands time. It needs patience too. (simple sentence)
2. Bacon stepped to the front of the room. He tripped over the microphone cord. (compound sentence)
3. Harrison’s Chemical Corporation is a company. It sponsors important research. (complex sentence)
4. We looked at only two houses before buying the house of our dreams. (periodic sentence)
5. Pigeons adjust to farm life. They adjust to city streets. In city streets they peck their livelihoods from garage heaps. (compound-complex sentence)
6. She was greatly disappointed to find that the picture did not look like her. (sentence with to opener)
7. He cut the grass. She trimmed the bushes. The children swept the clippings and put them into plastic bags. (long sentence)
8. She stood there. She watched the fair woman walk down the long line of galleries with grace and majesty. (sentence with a modifying phrase)
9. Tom went to college. His brother James didn’t. James had a very weak heart. (compound-complex sentence )
10. After losing his glasses，Tom drove down the wrong side of the street. He ran a stop sign，and went through two red lights. (sentence with parallel structure)
III.辨认主题句(15 points，5 points each)
16. Choose the best topic sentence from the four options below. Write the corresponding letter of your choice in the blank provided.
[A] Each of us inherits a culture made up，in part，of commonly accepted knowledge.
[B] We may also learn that eating too much candy will decay our teeth.
[C] We may learn from others that the earth revolves around the sun.
[D] These are the things that everybody knows.
Your choice: ________
17. Read the following paragraph and underline the topic sentence.
Paraphrasing，as well as quotation，is an essential skill in writing research papers. Paraphrasing is used for different purposes. Some paraphrases will be designated to support already existing evidence. Others will reinforce argumentation against evidence. Still others will help to develop existing arguments and provide back-up for any conclusion drawn in the course of writing. Depending on the function，paraphrases will be introduced in accordance with their unique context.
18. Read the following paragraph and choose the best topic sentence from the four options that follow. Write the corresponding letter of your choice in the blank provided.
Most adults sleep between seven and nine hours，but occasionally people turn up who need twelve hours or so，while some rare types can get by on three or four. Rarest of all are those legendary types who require almost no sleep at all; respected researchers have recently studied three such people. One of them-a healthy，happy woman in her seventies-sleeps about an hour every two or three days. The other two are men in early middle age，who get by on a few minutes a night. One of them complains about the daily fifteen minutes or so he’s forced to “waste” in sleeping.
[A] Sleep is a waste of time.
[B] Adequate sleeping hours are essential for most adults.
[C] Adults and teenagers vary widely in their sleeping habits.
[D] A fact about sleep is that individual needs for it vary widely.
IV.重新组合段落(5 points，1 point each)
19. Rearrange the following sentences so that they read logically. Put the corresponding letters in a proper sequence in the boxes provided below. The positions of some sentences have been given.
[A] We generally recognize that future circumstances are somehow caused or conditioned by present ones.
[B] Besides，we also learn that such patterns of cause and effect are probabilistic in nature.
[C] Thus, students learn that studying hard produces good grades in most instances，but not every time.
[D] Humans seem predisposed to undertake this task by using causal and probabilistic reasoning.
[E] Practically all people，and many other animals as well，exhibit a desire to predict their future circumstances.
[F] We learn that getting an education will affect how much money we earn later in life and that swimming beyond the reef may bring an unhappy encounter with a shark.
[G] That is，the effects occur more often when the causes occur than when the causes are absent-but not always.
[H] Sharks，on the other hand-whether or not they reason the matter through-may learn that hanging around the reef often brings a happy encounter with unhappy swimmers.
V.划掉与段落内容无关的句子(10 points，5 points each)
20. Read the following paragraph and cross out the TWO irrelevant sentences.
November and December are wonderful months for gardening in St. Petersburg, Florida. While residents of northern states are more concerned with preparations for winter，gardeners on the Sun coast of Florida can enjoy natural circumstances that enhance their efforts. Football enthusiasts in November and December can enjoy the sport throughout the country. Temperatures in Florida are warm enough to grow abundant amounts of flowers and vegetables. Flowers can be seen everywhere in the US. Plants and gardeners are relatively free from the annoying bug populations that present problems during the summer. If you enjoy gardening，you’ll find November and December good months in St. Petersburg，Florida.
21. Write a letter to apply for a position of secretary in a foreign trade company advertised in a newspaper on July 15，2010. Write to tell Mr. Heba，the manager of the company，your interest in the position，your qualifications，and your work experience. Don’t forget to mention your resume and two reference letters enclosed，your phone number (555-5555)，and your email address (firstname.lastname@example.org) for further contact. Please sign your name as Li Ping. (150-200 words)
I. Supply the missing paragraph. (20 points)
The following passage is incomplete with one body paragraph missing. Study the passage carefully and write the missing paragraph in about 100 words.Make sure that your tone and diction are in unity with the passage provided.
The Positive Effects of Owning a Dog on Children
Dogs are the best friend of children. The dog and the child teach each other things and they look after each other. Owning a dog can have positive effects on a child’s development. Having a dog develops a child’s sense of responsibility, broadens his capacity for empathy, and teaches him the nature of friendship.
Another lesson that a child can learn from having a dog is how to be empathetic. A dog cannot express itself with speech, so its owner must learn to understand what the dog’s behavior means. Is the dog frightened, aggressive, or sick? The child needs to understand what is going on in the dog’s mind. The result of learning to read a dog’s behavior is that the child develops mpathy. By learning how to empathize with a dog, the child also learns how to empathize with other people. This leads to the child becoming a more considerate and caring person.
Being considerate and caring are important characteristics in a good friend.One of the most significant benefits of owning a dog is the example of true friendship that a dog provides. A dog gives unconditional love to its owner. A dog will not stop loving its owner because of a little anger, indifference, or neglect. A dog will wait patiently for its owner to pat its head and say a few kind words. This acceptance of the negative qualities and appreciation for the positive qualities of its owner provide a wonderful model of how to be a good friend. A child who has learned to be as good a friend to others as his dog is to him will have learned one of the most valuable lessons in life.
These are some of the most important lessons a child will ever learn. The benefits of owning a dog will last in the child’s entire lifetime. The understanding and appreciation of responsibility, empathy, and friendship that a child develops from the experience of having a dog will help him or her grow into a reliable, caring, and mature adult. II. Write an outline. (20 points)
Read the following passage carefully and compose a “topic outline” for it.
Acting out Metaphors Encourages Creative Thinking
It happens in schools, offices, and boardrooms everywhere: someone working on a project hits a mental block. A boss or teacher might resort to a metaphor like “think outside the box” or “put two and two together,” encouraging a creative solution to the problem. As it turns out, this isn’t just abstract advice. According to an upcoming issue of Psychological Science, literally working outside of a box or putting two halves of something together just might help those creative juices start flowing again.
Since physical metaphors regarding creativity are so common and appearing in several different languages, a group of researchers hypothesized that they may extend beyond mere metaphors. Their study indicates that acting out metaphors literally can affect how our minds work.
In the first part of the study, the researchers asked 102 undergraduates to perform a Remote Associates Test (RAT), in which the subjects were given three seemingly uelated words and asked to come up with a word that relates to each one. For example, the subject might be given “measure,” “worm,” and “video,”and the correct response would be “tape.”
The participants were divided into three groups; one group was asked to perform this task while sitting inside a 5’ by 5’ cardboard box, another group sat outside the same box, and those in the third group performed the task without a box in the room at all. None of the participants knew the hypothesis behind the study; they were merely told it was an experiment on different working environments.
There was no difference in performance between those inside the box and those with no box at all. However, the participants that were seated outside the box did much better on the RAT than the other two groups. Apparently, something about literally “thinking outside the box” encourages creativity.
A second experiment looked at another well-known piece of advice: to “put two and two together” to come up with an answer. In the study, 64 subjects were divided into two groups. The first group had to perform a RAT while joining halves of cut paper cards from piles on each side of a desk. The second group performed a similar task, but only had to move card halves from one side of a desk to the other side. Those “putting two and two together” by uniting the two halves of the cards did far better on the RAT than those that were merely moving the cards from one pile to another.
So, acting out metaphors linked to creativity really can help us think creatively. In fact, it does more than let us access the knowledge we presently have; it encourages us to come up with new, unique and creative ideas. Next time you’re stuck on a problem, take a minute to ponder—or even act out—your favorite metaphor, and you might happen upon a great solution. IIl. Compose an essay. (60 points)
People are more and more concerned about the environment. Write a 300-word expository essay stating your opinion about what we can do as individuals to improve our environment.