ʯԭġ뼰

2022-04-01 ʯ

ʯޡѧҼһƪС˵ĽһdzнԢԹ£߶ѧ֮һ֪Ϊ֮˵ijСĺʯԭġ뼰ϣԴ

ʯԭġ뼰 ƪ1

ԭģ

һٺӸ(gn)ɽ(p)ںӣʯ޲ɡʮ꣬ɮļޣʯˮ ɵáΪ˳ӣ(zho)Сۣҷ(y)(p)Ѱʮ޼

һѧ֮ЦԻܾǷľ{(fi)ΪЯ֮ȥ?ʯԼأɳɸ(yn)ɳϣغ֮ߺ?ڷΪȷۡ

һϺӱ֮ЦԻʧʯ֮ʯԼأɳɸˮܳʯ䷴֮ʯӭˮ(ni)ɳΪѨʯ֮룬ʯصѨʯתת(zhun)תѣ췴ӡ̵֮;֮ߺ?ԣ⡣Ȼ֮£֪һ֪߶ӣɾ(y)(y)?

ģ

ݵϱߣһӰŵ˺ˮǰʯһûʮ꣬ɮļʽ޽ںѰʯޣûҵɮΪʯ˳ˮȥˡǻС٣Ѱʮûʯ޵ټ

һλѧ飬ºЦ˵Щ˲ƾĵⲻľƬôܱļĺˮ?ʯͷʼӲأɳʯͷûɳԽԽˡźȥѰֻʯޣǺܻƵһ?ŷΪ(仰)Ǿȷеۡ

һλϵĺӱ˵£Ц˵ˮʯޣӦӵѰҡʯͷʼӲأɳˮܳʯͷˮضʯͷӭˮĵطˢʯγɿӶԽԽ嵽ʯͷײһʱʯͷضڿӶֳʯͷתͣתʯ޷ˡѰʯޣȻ;ԭѰǣǸ?ϺӱĻȥȻεļҵʯޡȻôµ£ֻ֪ı󣬲̵֪̫ˣ(ѵ)Ըijж?

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1.ݣ٣ӣָƺӡɣߡ

2.ɽţĴšܣ

3.ģ꣺ꡣࣺࡣ

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5.ľľƬ

6.Σû

7.(һ١)ߵҡ

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9."ҧ".dzˢ˼Ѩӡ

10.ܶϣжϡ

11ѣֹͣ

12Ƿǣⲻ ǣ ǣǡ

13磺ա

14ʣѧܽѧ

15.ա

16.һ

17.٣ߡ

18.ܣ

19.ҷǣš

20.٣ͨҡصũߡ

21.ֻ

22.㵹

23.ǣԭ()ʷھס

24.ǣ͵ĺˮ

25.ǡ

26.ɣߡ

27.٣ԡ

28.һ

29.ɣ൱ڡ֮

30.Ѱҡ

31.ΪΪ

32.ǣΪ

33.ݣϡ

34.壺ԭ 壺һѧơ

Ԣ⣺

ʯޡǼ(,)һƪ£ѡԡ΢ñʼǡʮ֮ҪǺʯޣΪˮijʯޱԭʯҪʯ޵ȥҡ

˼Ҫ忼⣬뵱ȻÿһǰҪ½ۡ

Ŀںʯ޵λãɮж() (˳) ;ѧж ((yn)ɳ)(ʯԼأɳɸ) ;Ϻӱж() Ϊ (ʯԼأɳɸˮܳʯ䷴֮ʯӭˮɳΪѨʯ֮룬ʯصѨʯתתתѣ췴)

ĶʾȻķŸӵԭDzֻ֪һ֪͸ݳжϡӦȷۺϿǣϺӱȿʯ޵ıأȷˮijʯ޵໥ãַ໥òķԺӴ̬ľֲĸı䡣ˣܵóȷۡ

ʯԭġ뼰 ƪ2

ʯ

һٺӸɣɽںӣʯ޲ɡʮ꣬ɮļޣʯˮУɵãΪ˳ӡСۣҷ٣Ѱʮ޼

һѧУ֮ЦԻܾǷľ{ΪЯ֮ȥʯԼأɳɸɳϣغ֮ߺڷΪȷۡ

һϺӱ֮ЦԻʧʯ֮ʯԼأɳɸˮܳʯ䷴֮ʯӭˮɳΪѨʯ֮룬ʯصѨСʯתתתѣ췴ӡ̵֮ߣ֮Уߺԣ⡣Ȼ֮£֪һ֪߶ӣɾܶ죣(תת һת)

ʯޡ

ݵһӰĴŵ˺ǰֻʯҲһûڴ˺Сʮ꣬ɮļǮںѰֻʯޣ׻ûҵɮΪʯ˳ˮˡǻżֻС٣Ѱʮûҵʯ޵ټ

һλѧн飬˵Ц˵Щ˲ƾĵⲻľƬôܱǵĺˮأʯͷصӲأɳصʯûɳԽԽˡ˳źѰʯޣǺܻ𣿡ŷΪȷۡ

һλϺӱ˵˽ѧҵĹ۵㣬Ц˵еʯͷӦںӵѰΪʯͷʼӲأɳḡˮܳʯͷˮһʯͷӭˮĵطʴɳγɿӶԽԽӶ쵽ʯͷײһʱʯͷض㵹ڿӶСٳˢʯͷֻٴתͣתǷ෴ȥˡӵѰʯޣԵúܻƣʯ޳ûĵطѰǣԵø𣿡

ĻȥѰңȻεļѰʯޡȻôµ£ֻ֪󣬲֪кܶ࣬ѵԸijж

ʯޡע

ѡԡ΢ñʼǡʮ֮ʯޣŴĹǰʯ񣬴˴ָǰʯ

ϣݣӱʡءϣϲ

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ӸɣgnӰɣ

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죣yʵľĩʣΪء

ʯޡ

ĽһdzнԢԹ£߶ѧ֮һ֪Ϊ֮˵ijʶҪȫص̽һȫIJηΧʯ޵ѰչϷԵھеڼ򵥡ԼȴѰζ

ȫIJĽṹҪΧʯ޵ѰչϷԵھеĺкͨһΪʶޣճ˼άżֻС˳źȥѰʯޣȻҲѧ߰Լ鱾ѧ֪ʶҲȷһҲʱŷʵʵѧߵۺͷھ򣬿϶ҲҲʯ޵ġϺӱΪ򽻵Ժˮʯɳϰиϸµ˽⣬ܵóȷĽۣʯͷˡϺӱķѰңȻҵʯޡ

½βʾּȻ֮£֪һ֪߶ӣƾ۲²ж죣к͵ѧ֪һ֪ߡǺܶģճżʵġ߶Դһ֪Ϊǵ˽ijָʶķ;Ƭ⣬ܶϣҪȫص̽ԡԢ£Ƿdz̵ʾ

ĵĹ£Ȼ򵥣̺ȴѰζġ˵µ乲ͬɣԡԣǺĻܲɷֵģǷչ仯ġʵе飬ʵ֤һ㡣Ҳƪµʵ֮ڡ

ʯޡ

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꣬ҲԪ1789꣨Ǭ¡ʮ꣩Ԫ1798꣨꣩ڼ䣬ʼռֹ£ٹڿݵ'֣дˡ΢ñʼǡļеһƪ

ʯԭġ뼰 ƪ3

һٺӸɣgnɽܣpںӣʯ޲ɡʮ꣬ɮļޣʯˮУɵáΪ˳ӣzhoСۣҷy٣pѰʮ޼

һѧУ֮ЦԻܾǷľ{fiΪЯ(xi)֮ȥʯԼأɳɸΣynɳϣغ֮ߺڷΪȷۡ

һϺӱ֮ЦԻʧʯ֮ʯԼأɳɸˮܳʯ䷴֮ʯӭˮniɳΪѨʯ֮룬ʯص(zh)ѨСʯת(zhuan)תzhuanת(zhuan)ѣ췴(s)ӡ̵֮ߣ֮Уߺԣ⡣Ȼ֮£֪һ֪߶ӣɾܣy죣y

ʯ޷롿

ݵ棬һӰĴŵ˺ʯһûˡʮ꣬ɮļǮޣںѰʯޣûҵɮΪʯ˳ˮˡǻżֻС٣Ѱʮûκʯ޵ټ

һλͽЦ˵Щ˲ƾĵʯľƬôܱˮ?ʯͷʼӲأɳƯʯûɳϣԽԽˡ˳źѰʯޣǣԵã?ҶΪǾȷеۡ

һغӷϱ˵۵㣬Ц˵ǶʧںʯͷӦӵѰҡΪʯͷʼӲأɳƯˮܳʯͷˮķһʯͷӭˮĵطɳγɿӶԽԽ嵽ʯͷһʱʯͷض㵹ڿӶֳʯͷֻٴתͣתǷźˮ෴ƵȥˡӵѰʯޣͣԵãܻ;ԭѰǣǣԵã?ĻȥѰңȻεļѰʯޡȻôµ£ֻ֪һ֪кܶ࣬ѵԸĵж?

ԭע͡

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36磺գա

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ʯޡǼjyn,)һƪ£ѡԡ΢ñʼǡʮ֮ҪǺʯޣΪˮijʯޱԭʯҪʯ޵ȥҡ

˼ǿʱҪӱԭ򣬵óȷĽ

ȻķŸӵԭDzֻ֪һ֪͸ݳжϡӦȷۺϿǣеϺӱȿʯ޵ıأȷˮijʯ޵໥ãַ໥òķԺӴ̬ľֲĸı䡣ˣܵóȷۡ

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ࡶĿȫ顷ڼ䣬̶ѧʿΪڸѧʿһαɣβȱԼ£ûϳѨ¼ʵۻΪޣ̶ѧʿְΪĿȫ顷٣ҵӪʮ꣬Ŀȫ顷󹦸ɣƪƷǧİʮ֣ΪԡĿȫ顷֮žһоʷҪ顣Ŀȫ顷޳ɣѼżͷʷĻŲһشס˱ģһʱٰ֮ǧʮž־ʷӡIJͲ׫дˡĿȫĿҪپÿϤٴ󷲣ٵʧᆱͬʱگڡĿȫĿҪϣ󾫣дˡĿȫĿ¼ʮĿȫ顷޳ɵ꣬Ǩ飬侭۽١Ǭ¡۸⿪شϽ꣨1803ᰰʮ٣ʵԱףأϷãЭѧʿ̫ٱΣӼ¡ʮԺγƶԺγ顣Ĺ޶ׯ֮塣͢ɹԱѨ¼ʵۻΪ˱ģһʱٰ֮

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