2021-04-01 教学课件




  Friends for Life

  —Joyce Brothers

  Even though “friend” is a term of endearment used to describe many people in our lives, we often have a hard time knowing what the term means. Psychologists identify friends as those who accept each other, confide in each other and feel responsible for each other.

  In our transient cultures, we depend more on friends for things we once got from families-emotional support and often even financial help. With so many people living away from their families, and so many people single into their thirties, friends provide essential companionship.

  Friends can occur any place-even (surprise!) in a marriage. This was the case with me. I met and fell in love with Milton Brothers at university. He became my husband soon after, and we were together 39 years-until he died at the age of 62.

  He was my best friend, and I still miss him desperately. Since he died, my sister, with whom I fought fiercely when we were younger, has

  become one of my best friends. And I’m also very close to my only daughter, Lisa

  Friends ranks with marriage and kinship as one of the most important relationships in our lives, yet it can be the most neglected. Friendship outside familial ties or marriage plays such an important role in life because with a friend, we can be the person we want to be. Their acceptance affirms that self and lets us develop as individuals.

  We make no vows to a best friend, yet we have unstated expectations: understanding, caring, concern. We expect a friendship to last.

  Most of us have been making friends since childhood, so we tend to think the process is instinctual. Then we find that the heart of friendship-how to make the relationship blossom, grow and survive-requires more attention and skill than we thought. To Ralph Waldo Emerson, “the only way to have a friend is to be one.”

  Becoming friends involves a process of sharing, a gradual relaxation of vigilance over what partners reveal to each other about themselves. Friends must learn to balance the inclination to be open with the need to be protective of each other’s feelings. A best-friendship gets out of balance when the intensity becomes too one-sided. Total disclosure isn’t what makes intimacy in a relationship; it’s the listening and sharing.

  Increasing numbers of people are finding that gender doesn’t matter when it comes to friendship, as the sexes mingle more often today.

  Making friends with someone of the opposite sex can be an eye-opening experience. Michael told me what he discovered: ”I was working on the assembly line with Marcia, just as I would with a guy. And she kept pointing out how patronizing I was, offering to do the work for her because I felt she was less capable.

  Then Michael realized he was hearing the same complaint from his girlfriend. So he invited Marcia out for a beer and they talked. “I learned about today’s women from her. What I knew about women I’d learned from my father. I was a generation behind the times. Now I’m married to the girlfriend I had when I met Marcia, and I’m indebted to her for that. She and I are still good friends. Marcia and my wife are friends, too.”

  Can you fix a broken friendship? If you feel a close friend has hurt you, it’s worthwhile to sit down and say, “If I didn’t care about you, I’d just shrug my shoulders and go my own way. But since I do care, I’d like to straighten this out.” Then calmly talk about what has happened. You might find it’s just a misunderstanding.

  I can’t say I headed a broken friendship with my sister-our sibling rivalry was nothing unusual. But since Milton died, she and I found each other again, and it means a lot to me. The longer I live, the more important it is to feel connected. And that is what we do through friends.

  Near the end of his battle with cancer, Milton sent me to see our new grand-daughter. I held her and kissed her for both of us. When I told

  Milton I’d done this, he said, “I’ll always be with you, because part of me is in her, in each of our grandchildren.” He died a day or so later. I have four grandchildren now, and what Milton said is true. I take them, one by one, on adventures all over the world, and each time I find new friendships. And Milton, my best friend, is always with me.

  endearment: n.表示爱慕的话语;亲热的表示

  term: n.专业词语;术语;措辞

  1. Psychologists identify friends as those who accept each other, confide in each other and feel responsible for each other.

  Paraphrase: Psychologists regard friends as those who accept each other, trust each other and be responsible for each other.


  Identify…as: to find out exactly what sth. is 把…确认为…

  transient: adj.短暂的;片刻的;转瞬即逝的

  companionship: n.伙伴关系; 友情,友谊

  2. In our transient cultures, we depend more on friends for things we once got from families-emotional support and often even financial help. Paraphrase: In our cultures in which things change quickly, we get more things from friends, like emotional support and even financial support, which we got from families before.


  desperately: adv.极其; 绝望地; 不顾一切地,拼命地

  rank: v.分等级; n军衔, 职衔; 地位; 社会阶层; 排; 横列; 行列

  kinship: n.亲属关系; 亲切感

  neglect: v.忽略; 不予重视

  familial: v.家庭的,家族的

  affirm: v.肯定(某事)属实; 申明; 断言

  3. Friends ranks with marriage and kinship as one of the most important relationships in our lives, yet it can be the most neglected.

  Paraphrase: Friendship, together with marriage and family relationship, is one of the most important relationships in our lives, but sometimes we overlook it and pay very little attention to it.

  友谊, 同婚姻和亲情一样,是我们一生中最重要的关系之一。

  vow: n.(尤指宗教的)誓言,誓言

  tend to: 趋向,走向,倾向,趋于

  instinctual: 本能的(而非习得)的

  blossom: v.变得更加健康(或自信,成功)

  4. Then we find that the heart of friendship-how to make the relationship blossom, grow and survive-requires more attention and skill




  大多人学英语是多次放弃、重来;再放弃,再重来。开始都是怀着积极的心态,投入到英语学习的战斗中去。然而,学着学着,就感觉要"坚持"不住了,想要放弃。开始总是找不到解决的办法,为此而郁闷。后来才发现解决这样的问题其实并不难。 来源:考试大的美女编辑们


  在英语学习的过程中,感到枯燥乏味,信心不足的时候,不要强迫自己往下学,因为从你的思想意识形态里已经开始产生了抵触英语的情绪。这时再继续只能是" 适得其反",请你先放一放你所学习的内容,最好的去处是逛书店,选择一本自己喜欢的,翻开内容看上一两段,你就会发现原来你的英语已经很有水平了,以前的时间没有白费。

  还有,当你置身到书店的时候,你才能够感受到很多中国人都和你一样在努力着,也许他(她)的英文水平很高也许他 (她)还不如你。从而让自己产生羡慕、嫉妒、欣慰的心理。只有这样才能激发你的继续学习的兴趣。除此之外,你还可以去听听那些原版磁带,去看看原版DVD 来调节自己的心态。


  背单词不要孤立的背,一定要融合到句子中去。要查词典,在词典中把这个单词每个不同的例句都要找出一两句实用的作为代表练出来,这样你才会知道一个单词的不同用法。 还有一个办法,就是利用摩西英语、大耳朵英语这些免费英语学习网站,从周一到周五,每天学习一个英文单词的起源、用法、同根词,学习一句英文名言,记住五个相关的单词,这样在轻松阅读故事的过程中每周记住30个左右的单词,一年就能累计记住1500个单词。 除了听写、默写以外,还要增加阅读量,看一些和自己水平相当的英语书籍从而扩充词汇量。阅读不需要去背诵,也不需要去听录音,但必须勤查词典。这个方法只是为了增加词汇量,尽量在短时间内减少生词。








  如果完全没有目的性地学习英语,非常容易中断学习。毕业几年的上班族,为了为自己的学习添点儿动力,不妨自己选一本教材学习。比如经典的综合英语教材《新概念英语》、 或是偏重口语教材的《走遍美国》、还有适合商务人士的《剑桥商务英语BEC》,都可以给你系统的学习方向。



  Unit 11

  Teaching Reading



  The Nature of Reading

  How do we read?

  What do we read?

  Strategies involved in reading comprehension

  The role of vocabulary in reading

  Principles and models for teaching reading


  Pre-reading activities

  While- reading activities

  Post-reading activities


  The Nature of Reading

  The Nature of Reading

  Reading is an active process. It constantly involves guessing, predicting, checking and asking oneself questions.

  Reading is the ability to understand the written words and respond to them in proper ways. Reading means getting meaning out of a given context.

  How do we read?

  1. Reading has only one purpose, i.e. to get information.

  2. Reading is a silent activity. Reading aloud does not help much with comprehension.

  3. Reading with a purpose is more effective than reading without a purpose.

  4. When we read, our eyes are constantly moving from letter to letter, word to word and sentence to sentence.

  5. Reading is an individual activity.

  6. We need to know all the words in order to understand a text

  7. We read everything with the same speed.

  8. When reading in a foreign language, we mentally translate everything in order to understand.

  9. It is helpful to use a dictionary and note down the meaning of all the new words while reading.

  10. The lack of cultural knowledge may affect the rate of reading comprehension.

  11. Possessing a large amount of vocabulary is the key for reading comprehension.

  12. Reading can best be improved by being engaged in reading and reading more.

  Tasks should help develop students’ reading skills rather than test their reading comprehension. The teacher should help students not merely to cope with one particular text in class but to develop their reading strategies and reading ability in general so that they are able to apply the strategies or skills learned in class to tackle other texts they encounter outside class or in the future.



  Pre-reading activities

  Pooling existing knowledge about the topic

  Predicting the contents of the text

  Skimming or scanning the text for certain purposes

  Learning key words and structures

  Aims——To facilitate while-reading activities

  Pre-reading activities





  Skimming and scanning

  Setting the scene

  Content Layouts

  Predicting is an important reading skill, which can make reading more intriguing and purposeful .Therefore, it is likely to result in better comprehension compared with the situation where the learner starts reading with a blank mind.

  Three ways of prediction

  Predicting based on the title

  Good titles always contain the most important information of a written text.


  Look at the three titles in the box below and predict the contents of the texts. When you are ready, join another pair an d compare your predictions and the clues that helped you to make the

  To begin with, students may not be good at predicting. If so, the teacher can help them by asking certain questions. For example, for each of the three texts above, we can ask these questions:

  Text 1: What is a pet? What are pets for? Why do people love pets? Are there any problems with pets?

  Text 2: What is a jungle? Where can you find jungles? What do you think has happened to the jungles?

  Text 3: What happened to the child? How do you think the parents would feel? What could the police do?

  Three ways of prediction

  Predicting based on vocabulary

  The teacher also asks students to write down the words that they think will appear in the text,

  Predicting based on the T/F questions

  The teacher gives students some true or false statements. Students predict if these statements are true or false. Then they read the text to check if they have made the right predictions.

  Setting the scene

  Getting the students familiarized with the cultural and social background knowledge relevant to the reading text.

  Setting the scene by relating what students already know to what they want to know.

  Using visual aids to setting the scene, such as real objects, pictures, videos episodes and multi-media materials,etc.


  Reading quickly to get the gist,i.e. the main idea of the text.

  Ask general questions which allow students to focus on one or two things.

  Provide 3-4 statements and one of them represents the main idea, ask students to read the text and decide which statement is the correct one.

  Provide subtitles for different parts of a text and asks students to put them in the right place. Scanning

  Read to locate specific information. The key point is that the readers has something in his mind

  and he should ignore the irrelevant parts when reading.

  Besides,we can also ask students to scan for vocabulary which usually have certain semantic connections with the theme. Though teachers’ pre-teaching,students will facilitate the reading tasks that follow.


  What’s more, students can also scan for certain structures,for example, tense forms,discourse connectors,or particular sentence structures,which can serve as the basis for grammar study. Should pay attention to following things:

  Set a time limit;

  Give clear instruction for the task

  Wait until 70% of the students finish


  Make clear how you are going to get feedback

  Make sure that answers to the scanning questions are scattered throughout the text rather than clustered at one place.

  Different texts offer opportunities for different kinds of exploitation. Yet a reading passage in traditional reading comprehension textbook has generally been exploited by means of mutiple choice quesstions,T/F questions, open questions, parahrasing and translation.

  While-reading activities

  While-reading activities

  In this section we will look at some different ways of exploiting texts focusing on the process of understanding rather than the results of reading.

  Information presented in plain text form dose not facilitate information retention. When information in text form is transferred to another form, it can be more effectively processed and retained. The way to transfer information from one form to another is called a transition device Transition device

  Its function in teaching reading can be

  illustrated in the following diagram:

  Most of the transition devices make use of visual aids so that information in text form is visualized. Research has shown visualization can help second language learners to comprehend meaning

  Below are some transition devices that are often used in teaching:

  Purposes of transition device:

  1.Focus attention on the main meaning of the text.

  2.Be able to simplify sophisticated input so that it becomes the basic for out put.

  3.Allow the students to perform tasks while they are reading.

  4.Highlight the main structural organization of a text /part of a text, and show how the structure relates to meaning.

  5.Involve all the students in clearly defined reading tasks.

  6.Precede one step at a time(easier tasks before more complicated one.)

  7.When a TD is completed, use it as a basis for further oral and/or written language practice. Reading comprehension question

  One of the most frequently used methods in teaching reading is asking students to answer comprehension questions. Nuttal suggests that we can classify questions according to the kind of information that they require students to get from the texts, or the kind of thinking that we wish students to engage in.

  She lists five types:

  Questions of literal comprehension. These are questions whose answer are directly and explicitly expressed in the text.

  Questions involving reorganization or reinterpretation. These questions require Ss to put literal information together in a new way or reinterpret it.

  Questions for inferences. They require Ss to consider what is implied but not explicitly stated. Questions for evaluation or appreciation. Such as making judgment about what the writer is trying to do and whether the writer is biased or dishonest.

  Questions for personal response. The answers to these questions depend most on the reader`s reaction to the content of the text.

  Understanding references:

  All natural language, spoken or written , uses referential words such as pronouns to refer to people or things already mentioned previously in the context. Some students have difficulty in following clearly the references in the text. So the teacher should find ways to help Ss find the meaning of the references in the context.

  Making inferences

  Making inferences, which means 'reading between the lines', is an important reading skill. It requires the readers to use background knowledge in order to infer the implied meaning of the




  说外语时,我们主要应做到四件事: 理解 --回答 --提问 --口头表达



  你应该区别讲求准确性的口头训练与讲求"被理解"的口头交流之间的区别。如果你为交流而说英语,那么你犯的错误大都可以忽视。重要的是信心十足地去交流(那可不是容易的!)。如果你确实是在交流,那么即使你犯错误也没有 关系,只要这些错误不干扰你的交流。你只要纠正在你口头 表达或写作时会妨碍别人理解你的错误就可以了。


  练习语言听力的方法是要采取积极主动而非被动的方式。如果老师在介绍一篇课文时稍加一个短评,并且提出一个问题,学生们就会积极主动地聆听。例如,老师说:"今 天我准备给你们读一则讲述一个意外事件的故事。读完之后,我要问你们这件事是如何发生的。"这会鼓励学生们积 极认真地听,以求找到问题的答案。如果老师只是说:"请听这个故事",学生们则没有聆听的重点。他们的双眼可能 是睁着的,但头脑确是封闭的。


  这是因为你把精力放在听单词上,而不是理解意思上。不要听单个的单词,然后就试图把它们译成汉语,应该听懂全文的意思。听英语时,要排除汉语干扰。这正是优秀 译员所要具备的:他们先要弄懂一段语言的意思,然后把它译成另一种语言,以便听者可以听懂说话的大意。


  我想你所提的"时断时续"(说英语)可能是指突然迸 发式的说话方式。首先,你必须明白,大多数口头表达是与他人交往的产物。我们很少发表长篇大论,这就是说我们必须培养我们自己理解别人讲话的能力,然后根据我们所听到的内容作出回答。会话的性质不同,要求的技巧也自然不同。例如:·交流信息。这是我们每天最常见的交流形式。你的朋友告诉你他/她在业余时间所喜欢做的事。你仔细听,然后 告诉他/她你在业余时间所想做的事。你就如此这般回答。在这种交流中,你一般会大量使用一般现在时。·叙述。你的朋友用过去时告诉你一

  段经历(他/她如何误车,然后上班迟到,老板说些什么,等等)。你仔细听,然后讲述你自己的经历。在这种交流中,你一般会使用一般过去时或过去进行时。按时间顺序讲述一个故事较为容易:某事开始于……,然后叙述正文,最后结束讲述。·交流看法和观点。你的朋友告诉你他/她对某事的看法,他/她先描述一段场景,然后发表他/她的意见,并给出 理由。你仔细听,然后以同样的方式作出回答。你有可能陈述事实(你从报纸上读到的东西),给出一个或几个例子,然后说明你的看法。你很可能用些诸

  如 In my opinion…, I think…, I agree with what you say, but…

  和 I"m afraid I disngree.I think…等短语。

  不错,平时多练习以提高你的英语口语,但不要指望遇见外国人(我想你所指的是来自说英语的国家的人)这个办法。如果这样的话,你练习说英语的机会就少多了。首先,经常遇见外国人是不容易的;其次,他们可能不愿被你用来 练英语;再者,如果你与一位外国人交谈,你可能会对自己 的英语水平不甚清楚,无法表达自己的

  思想(就像你所提的 事例一样)。那么,你该怎么办呢?你可以给你自己创造机 会。你可以找与你有相同的文化背景、面临类似问题的人练习英语口头表达能力。你可以定期参加英语会话课,在老师 的监督下练习,也可以和与你情况相当的朋友聚会,共同敲定一个谈话的主题。可以选一些你们讲中文时了解或愿意聊 的话题。当你心中感到言之有物的时候,你就会找到你所需要用的词来表达你的思想,这是个自明之理。


  如果你在听广播的话,为什么非要写下一个完整句子呢?广播的播音通常是段英语口语。它并不是听写。我想你所说的是你没有抓住单个单词的意思。我的建议是:在听广播时,不要试图抓住个别单词的意思,要集中注意力听完整的句子,尽力抓住全文的意思。也就是说你一定要根据上下 文判断新单词的意思。要训练自己为理解文章的意思而听广 播,而不是为个别单词而听广播。


  一门外国语最难掌握的一项技巧就是听懂母语讲话人用 正常速度所说的自然语言的能力。另外,在体育报道中,语速通常是快的。听一场赛马或汽车比赛的评论,你会发现评 论员几乎都跟不上自己的速度,因为他要努力踉上他所看到的项目的进行速度。你可以通过几个方法来训练自己听懂母 语讲话者说话的能力。一种办法是使用"有声读物"。这些读物以录音带、CD或录像带的形式出版。它们主要包括著 名演员朗读的小说或传记,这些读物是面向那些不想亲自读故事而想听别人读的母语讲话者的。


  在陌生人面前你觉得胆怯,对自己的英语没有自信。为 什么呢?因为你怕被人

  嘲笑。这种情况尤其会影响讲外语的成年人。(越年轻就越没有顾忌!)你该怎么办呢?你可以先 说服自己讲别人的语言出了错误并不是件丢人的事。设想将情景反过来,外国人在努力与你讲中文。你会怎么办?你会嘲笑他们的语病,还是会去帮助他们呢?许多以英语为母语的人,尤其是那些长期在国外的,了解学英语的人努力讲英语的情形,一般都会有耐心、宽容地提供帮助。了解到这一点,你就可以试着与外国人交谈。仔细听,大体弄懂他们谈的是什么。"轮到"你说话的时候你可以发表自己的意见。 你认为自己可能误解的地方,可以请与你交谈的人解释,你 也可以请他们纠正一两个关键的错误。这样你会慢慢建立起信心。


  你的头脑中不要想中文。在听英语时,你应该带着英语 思维听,不要试图给你听到的每个英语单词都找到一个中文的对等词。如果你顽固坚持,就会完全听不懂意思,也就听不到什么英语。不要拘泥于单个的词,应集中精力努力弄懂整个词组、句子和段落的意思。听到不理解的地方,努力从上下文中推导含义。听完一篇英语后,(用英语)回忆一下 它讲的是什么,考考自己。


  费解的问题!"虚拟"是英语中很少使用的一个语法形式。可能你是要我推荐那些听起来像真正的英语,而不像语法书的英语录音。如果这样,我建议你查阅出版社的英语语 言教学目录,找到"读物"部分,选择有声读物(即磁带里的故事书)。选择自己认为适合的等级,然后选择你喜欢的 题目订购。如果你的英语水平较高,你可以买或借"有声图 书",这是由演员朗读的原版小说。


  错误只有在严重影响交流的时候才构成问题。如果与你交谈的人理解你所说的大部分,那你做得很好,犯了多少错误没有多大关系。如果你愿意,可以请英语水平比你高的人 替你纠正,但这样通常很乏味,而且干扰交流。如果与你交谈的人能理解你说的意思,那就很好,完全不应该担心错误。

  如何 避免“中国式英语”?

  你之所以老是把中文译成英语,是因为你的口语技巧尚未达到让你自信的水平。你在参加交谈前需掌握四项技巧.它们是: --理解 --回答 --问 --说因此你要集中提高这些技巧:训练自己理解英语口语,训练自己问问题,训练自己回答问题,最终说英语。你在掌握了前三项技巧后,就可以水到渠成地掌握最后(也是最难的)一项:说。





  (1) We study spoken English so as to make oral communications, so this order of importance of oral English study should be followed: Fluency, Accuracy, and Appropriateness. That is to say, we have to pay more attention to practical communicating ability instead of only laying emphasis on the grammatical correctness.



  (2) Try to find some partners practicing oral English together and English corner is a good place as where we may exchange English study experience, widen our sight and improve interest in English. By the way, Guangzhou New Oriental School holds an English Corner on every Wednesday evening from 7:00 to 9:00 at Haizhu No. 8 classroom. One of the teachers in our department will be the MC at the English Corner. Welcome every friend who is crazy about learning English!


  (3) If it’s not easy to get English partners or having little chance to attend an English corner, then we have to create an English environment ourselves by speaking English to ourselves. For example, you can talk to yourself about what you have seen or what you have done.


  (4) This method is very effective and easy to insist on--interpreting Chinese-E

  nglish novels or books. First of all, we read the Chinese parts and try to interpret them into English sentence by sentence, and then compare our interpretation with the original versions in the novels or books after finishing one small paragraph’s interpretation, so that we can find out the mistakes, shortcomings and progresses in our interpretation.




  成人学英语普遍存在的问题是记忆力差,作复述练习或背诵课文时,往往力不从心;或者由于词汇量太小觉得直接作口译太难,那么推荐一种解决这个问题有效方法:先学习英文部分,通篇理解透彻后,再来看汉语译文, 这时,再把汉语译文口译回英文。这样做等于既作复述练习又作口译(语)练习,可谓一箭双雕,一石二鸟!这样训练的好处体现在以下七个方面:

  1. 自己就可以练习口语,想练多久,就练多久。

  2. 始终有一位高级教师指出您的不足和错误——英文原文。

  3. 训练的题材范围极广,可以突破我们自己的思维禁锢,比如,我们总是喜欢谈论我们自己熟悉的话题,所以我们总是在练习相同的语言,进步当然就缓慢了。

  4. 选择小说,幽默故事或好的短文阅读,使我们有足够的兴趣坚持下去。

  5. 有一些我们在直接学习英语课文时被我们熟视无睹的地道的英语用法会被此法发掘出来。

  6. 对所学知识和所犯错误印象深刻。这等于我们一直在作汉译英练习,很多英文译文是我们费尽心思憋出来的,所以印象相当深刻,这比直接学习英文课文印象要深的多。

  7. 经过大量的练习,你会有这样的感觉:没有什么东西你不能翻译,你的翻译水平大大加强了,你的口语表达力大大提高了!




  1、 在日常物业费缴纳过程中,业主常常会因为工作繁忙、人在外地、返修整改、久未出租……等各种原因迟交、甚至拒缴物业费。为了维持物业的正常运作,保障公司的合法权益,“催费”便成为必不可少的工作。

  2、 本要略是通过在日常催费工作中的不断尝试和总结编写而成的催费小招(办法)。招与招之间可单独使用,亦可根据不同业主、不同情况据实搭配使用。选择招数时应按先必做后自选、先个人(片区、管家)后全体(所有岗位员工)、先私人后正式的原则进行。

  3、 重点说明:本要略所言“催费”一定是基于所有物业服务均达标的前提下进行的,切不可只“催费”无“服务”。


  第一招 适时提醒




  时间点。此外,各项目可根据自身特殊情况添加。业主分别发送短信,避免业主产生“他只是群发,不是在提醒我”的想法,耽误缴纳时间。 提醒节点见下表:

  第二招 断其后路





  如果业主一直含糊其辞说”最近” “这两天会来交”则要和业主约定一个有效的时间,到了时间之后再次提醒业主,这样,不仅使业主自己心里在时间上产生紧迫感,同时也让一拖再拖的业主产生失信的感觉,最终达到有效催费的目的。




  您看您平时也比较忙,不如办个银行代扣,多省心啊,就不用每个月还要惦着来这边缴费了,大老远的。(用意:突出远、累) 像您平时比较忙(人在外地)的,也可以考虑银行转账啊,我们这边有中行和农行的,您看哪个还比较方便啊?







  第三招 苦肉计








  第四招 地毯搜索