高中英语主谓一致课件

2017-08-22成金 课件

  就近一致

  故事:就近有一只猫和三百只老鼠在玩耍,在我看来,或者猫或者老鼠是要死的,可实际上,猫既没有把老鼠吃掉,老鼠也没有把猫整死,在长期的进化中,不仅是猫而且老鼠也知道了友善,他们彼此和谐相处了。不是猫,而是老鼠认为世界该变一变了。

  译文:There is a cat and three mice playing in the yard.

  解析:there be 句子是倒装结构,其中be的数的变化取决于最临近的一个主语。

  例如:

  Is there a banana and seven apples on the table?

  译文:In my view, either cat or mice are to die in the stuggle.

  解析:either…or…或者…或者…,连接两个主语时,谓语动词的数随就近的一个。

  例如:

  Either he or I am to be responsible for the accident.

  译文:But , to my surprise, neither mice nor cat dies.

  解析:neither…nor…既不…也不…,连接两个主语时,谓语动词的数随就近的一个。

  例如:

  Neither his parents nor he is interested in swimming.

  译文:In the long run, they have become friendly to each other. Not cat but mice believe the world should change.

  解析:not…but….不是…而是…. ,连接两个主语时,谓语动词的数随就近的一个。

  例如:

  Neither the students nor the teacher runs away in the earthquake.

  (符合就近原则的结构有there be, not…but…, not only…but also…, or…or…, neither…nor…)

  记忆:

  就近有个人在叫卖,不是老头而是老太;

  不仅卖瓜而且卖菜,或者现钱或者放债,

  既没有车也不用秤,只要你笑她就白送。

  语法一致

  故事:三国时候有一套马车金壁辉煌,它的美吸引了每一个国王,每一个国王,还有他的大臣们不止一次地想拥有这套马车,很多种方法都被他们尝试过了,但艰苦努力都是徒劳,当时有99%的人口都反对把车让给国王,因为只有勇士张飞,才是唯一有资格拥有这辆马车的人。只要这辆马车一跑,就会趟起大量的尘土。

  译文:There was a cart and horse in the Three Kingdom Period, which was very splendid.

  解析:

  由and连接两个名词做主语,不是指同一个人、同一物或同一概念时,谓语动词一般用复数。当and连接两个表示同一个人,同一物或同一概念时,谓语动词常用单数形式,如果名词前要加冠词,往往在第一个名词前才用,第二个名词前不用冠词修饰。常见的有bread and butter, war and peace, a knife and fork, a cart and horse等。如:

  (1)Fire and water don’t agree.

  (2) The singer and dancer is popular with the young people.

  (3) Bread and butter is what they usually have for breakfast.

  译文:Every king was attracted by its beauty.

  解析:

  两个并列名词分别由every,each, many a, no等修饰,做主语时,谓语动词用第三人称单数。如:

  (4)Each boy and each girl has an English dictionary.

  (5) Many a boy and many girrl made the same mistake in the exercise.

  (6) No man and no animal is on the moon.

  译文:The king, together with his ministers wanted more than once to own the horse and cart.

  解析:

  主语后面接有with, along with, together with, as well as, rather than, in addition to, like , except, but, including, besides等词构成的短语修饰时,谓语动词的数与前面的主语保持一致。如:

  (7)Professor Brown with a group of students was doing experiments at that time.

  (8)Our head teacher, along with his students is going to play football this weekend.

  译文:Many a way was tried by them.

  解析:

  “more than one + 单数名词(不止一个……)”,“many a(许多)”虽然表示复数含义,但谓语动词与单数名词保持一致,习惯上用单数。如:

  (9)More than one person was present at the meeting.

  (10)Many a student has passed the exam.

  译文:But hard working was in vain.

  解析:

  不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句做主语,谓语动词用单数。

  (11)Seeing is believing. =To see is to believe.

  (12)When we’ll go out for an outing has been decided.

  译文:99% of the population were against the king’s ownership of the cart and horse.

  解析:

  百分数(或分数) + of + 可数名词单数(或不可数名词),谓语用单数;百分数 (或分数) + of +名词复数,谓语用复数。

  (13)Twenty percent of the workers in the factory are women.

  (14) More than 70 percent of the surface of the earth is covered by water.

  译文:Zhang Fei was the only one of the people who had the right to own the cart and horse.

  解析:

  在定语从句中关系代词做主语时,从句谓语动词要与先行词的数保持一致。在先行词前有one of修饰时,从句谓语动词与复数名词保持一致;在先行词前有the only one of, the very one of 等修饰时,从句谓语动词与one保持一致,用第三人称单数形式。如:

  (15)The man who wants to see you is waiting for you at the gate.

  (16)He was one of the men in the office who were invited to the ball.

  (17)He was the only one of the men in the office who was invited to the ball.

  译文:Huge quantities of dirt were raised by the cart as long as the horse ran.

  large amounts of 和 huge quantities of 后即使跟的是不可数名词,谓语动词也要用复数形式。

  (18)Huge quantities of good earth has been blown away in this area.

  意义一致

  故事:受伤的人们都戴着眼镜,正在看《一千零一夜》的故事,这时,从远处来了一群牛,牛背上驮着家具,这些家具值3万美元,这可是一大笔钱啊。

  译文:The wounded were wearing glasses.

  解析:

  “the + 形容词或过去分词”,如:the rich, the poor, the blind, the old, the injured, the wounded做主语时,表示具体的某类人或事,谓语动词常常用复数形式。如:

  The rich make the poor slaves.

  The wounded were sent to the hospital at once.

  .表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes,pincers, tongs 夹钳 shears,sessiors 剪子。使用这些词做主语时,谓语应该用复数。

  若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers,这时,谓语动词应该用单数。

  A pair of glasses is necessary to the near-sighted.眼镜对近视眼患者很有必要。

  译文:They are reading “the Arabian Nights”.

  解析:

  以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,用在句子中做主语时,谓语动词用单数。如:

  a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。

  b. news 是不可数名词。

  c.国家名称the United States,the United Nations,应视为单数。

  The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。

  d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。

  “The Arabian Nights” is a very interesting story-book.

  <<一千零一夜>>是一本非常有趣的故事书。

  “New York Times” is a very influencial paper.纽约时报是一份很有影响的报纸。

  译文:Just then, a herd of cattle came from the distance, with furniture on their backs, which was worth 30’000 dollars.

  解析:

  集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。

  如:people police cattle audience jewellery clothing 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,

  英文中还有些单词,可以看作是一个整体,这时是单数,也可以看作是很多个体,这时表复数的概念。例如:class(班;全班同学), team(队;全体队员), family(家庭;全家人)等。

  My class often wins first in the competition.

  My class are all girl students.

  The family lives happily.

  The family all like potatoes and tomatoes.

  以下一些词是不可数名词,在句子中当单数处理。furniture equipment

  译文:30’000 dollars is a big sum of money.

  解析:

  表示时间、距离、金钱、重量等的复数名词或短语做主语时,常常看作一个整体,谓语动词用第三人称单。如

  (1)Another three years has passed.

  (2) Thirty-six thousand francs is a big sum for the couple to pay off.

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