英美文学试题

2018-05-14 经典美文

  20xx年英美文学试题

  20xx年英美文学试题

  PART ONE (40 POINTS)

  I. Multiple Choice (40 points in all, 1 for each)

  Select from the four choices of each item the one that best answers the question or completes the statement. Write your choice on the answer sheet.

  1.The most significant idea of the Renaissance is(   ).

  A. humanism B. realism C. naturalism D. skepticism

  2.Shakespeare’s tragedies include all the following except(   ).

  A. Hamlet and King Lear B. Antony and Cleopatra and Macbeth

  C. Julius Caesar and Othello D. The Merchant of Venice and A Midsummer Night’s Dream

  3.The statement “Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability”opens one of well-known essays by

  A. Francis Bacon B. Samuel Johnson C. Alexander Pope D. Jonathan Swift

  4.In Hardy’s Wessex novels, there is an apparent(   )touch in his description of the simple though primitive rural life.

  A. nostalgic B. humorous C. romantic D. ironic

  5.Backbite, Sneerwell, and Lady Teazle are characters in the play The School for Scandal by(   ).

  A. Christopher Marlowe B. Ben Jonson C. Richard Brinsley Sheridan D. George Bernard Shaw

  6.Of all the 18th century novelists Henry Fielding was the first to set out, both in theory and practice, to write specifically a“(   )in prose,”the first to give the modern novel its structure and style.

  A. tragic epic B. comic epic C. romance D. lyric epic

  7.In his poem “Tyger, Tyger,”William Blake expresses his perception of the“fearful symmetry”of the big cat. The phrase“fearful symmetry”suggests(   ).

  A. the tiger’s two eyes which are dazzlingly bright and symmetrically set B. the poet’s fear of the predator

  C. the analogy of the hammer and the anvil D. the harmony of the two opposite aspects of God’s creation

  8.“What is his name?”

  “Bingley.”

  “Is he married or single?”

  “Oh! Single, my dear, to be sure! A single man of large fortune; four or five thousand a year. What a fine thing for our girls!”

  The above dialogue must be taken from(   ).

  A. Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice B. Emily Bronte’s Wuthering Heights

  C. John Galsworthy’s The Forsyte Saga D. George Eliot’s Middlemarch

  9.The short story“Araby”is one of the stories in James Joyce’s collection(   ).

  A. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man B. Ulysses C. Finnegans Wake D. Dubliners

  10.William Wordsworth, a romantic poet, advocated all the following except(   ).

  A. the using of everyday language spoken by the common people

  B. the expression of the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings

  C. the humble and rustic life as subject matter

  D. elegant wording and inflated figures of speech

  11.Here are two lines taken from The Merchant of Venice:“Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew/Thou mak’st thy knife keen.”What kind of figurative device is used in the above lines?

  (   ) A. Simile. B. Metonymy. C. Pun. D. Synecdoche.

  12.“If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?”is an epigrammatic line by(   ).

  A. J. Keats B. W. Blake C. W. Wordsworth D. P. B. Shelley

  13.The poems such as“The Chimney Sweeper”are found in both Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience by

  A. William Wordsworth B. William Blake C. John Keats D. Lord Gordon Byron

  14.John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress is often regarded as a typical example of(   ).

  A. allegory B. romance C. epic in prose D. fable

  15.Alexander Pope strongly advocated neoclassicism, emphasizing that literary works should be judged by(   )rules of order, reason, logic, restrained emotion, good taste and decorum.

  A. classical B. romantic C. sentimental D. allegorical

  16.In his essay“Of Studies,”Bacon said:“Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and(   ).”

  A. skimmed B. perfected C. imitated D. digested

  17.“For I have known them all already, known them all—/Have known the evenings, mornings, afternoons,/I have measured out my life with coffee spoons.”The above lines are taken from(   ).

  A. Wordsworth’s “The Solitary Reaper” B. Eliot’s“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”

  C. Coleridge’s“Kubla Khan” D. Yeats’s“The Lake Isle of Innisfree”

  18.(The)(   )was a progressive intellectual movement throughout Western Europe in the 18th century.

  A. Romanticism B. Humanism

  C. Enlightenment D. Sentimentalism 19.A typical Forsyte, according to John Galsworthy, is a man with a strong sense of(   ), who never pays any attention to human feelings.

  A. morality B. justice C. property D. humor

  20.The typical feature of Robert Browning’s poetry is the (   ).

  A. bitter satire B. larger-than-life caricature C. Latinized diction D. dramatic monologue

  21.George Bernard Shaw’s play, Mrs. Warren’s Profession is a grotesquely realistic exposure of the(   ).

  A. slum landlordism B. political corruption in England

  C. economic oppression of women D. religious corruption in England

  22.The story starting with the marriage of Paul’s parents Walter Morel and Mrs. Morel must be

  A. Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles B. D. H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers

  C. George Eliot’s Middlemarch D. Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre

  23.In American literature the first important writer who earned an international fame on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean is(   ). A. Washington Irving B. Ralph Waldo Emerson C. Nathaniel Hawthorne D. Walt Whitman

  24.The American novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne is known for his“black vision.”The term“black vision”refers to

  A. Hawthorne’s observation that every man faces a black wall

  B. Hawthorne’s belief that all men are by nature evil

  C. that Hawthorne employed a dream vision to tell his story

  D. that Puritans of Hawthorne’s time usually wore black clothes

  25.Theodore Dreiser was once criticized for his(   )in style, but as a true artist his strength just lies in that his style is very serious and well calculated to achieve the thematic ends he sought.

  A. crudeness B. elegance C. conciseness D. subtlety

  26.“He is the last of the romantic heroes, whose energy and sense of commitment take him in search of his personal Grail; his failure magnifies to a great extent the end of the American Dream.”The character referred to in the passage is most likely the protagonist of(   ).

  A. Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby B. Dreiser’s An American Tragedy

  C. Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls D. Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

  27.Almost all Faulkner’s heroes turned out to be tragic because(   ).

  A. all enjoyed living in the declining American South B. none of them was conditioned by the civilization and social institutions C. most of them were prisoners of the past D. none were successful in their attempt to explain the inexplicable

  28.Yank, the protagonist of Eugene O’Neill’s play The Hairy Ape, talked to the gorilla and set it free because

  A. he was mad, mistaking a beast for a human

  B. he was told by the white young lady that he was like a beast and he wanted to see how closely he resembled the gorilla C. he was caged with the gorilla after he insulted an aristocratic stroller

  D. he could feel the kinship only with the beast

  29.In(   ), Robert Frost compares life to a journey, and he is doubtful whether he will regret his choice or not when he is old, because the choice has made all the difference.

  A. “After Apple-Picking” B. “The Road Not Taken” C. “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”

  D. “Fire and Ice”

  30.Though Walt Whitman and Emily Dickinson were romantic poets in theme and technique, they differ from each other in a variety of ways. For one thing, whereas Whitman likes to keep his eye on human society at large, Dickinson often addresses such issues as(   ), immortality, religion, love and nature.

  A. progress B. freedom C. beauty D. death

  31.The Romantic Writers would focus on all the following issues EXCEPT the(   )in the American literary history. A. individual feeling B. survival of the fittest C. strong imagination D. return to nature

  32.Generally speaking, all those writers with a naturalistic approach to human reality tend to be(   ).

  A. transcendentalists B. optimists C. pessimists D. idealists

  33.With Howells, James, and Mark Twain active on the literary scene,(   )became the major trend in American literature in the seventies and eighties of the 19th century.

  A. Sentimentalism B. Romanticism C. Realism D. Naturalism

  34.American writers after World War I self-consciously acknowledged that they were(a)“(   ),”devoid of faith and alienated from the Western civilization.

  A. Lost Generation B. Beat Generation C. Sons of Liberty D. Angry Young Men

  35.In(   ), Washington Irving agrees with the protagonist on his preference of the past to the present, and of a dream-like world to the real world.

  A. “Young Goodman Brown” B.“Rip Van Winkle” C. “Rappaccini’s Daughter” D.“Bartleby, the Scrivener”

  36.Hester Prynne, Dimmesdale, Chillingworth and Pearl are most likely characters in(   ).

  A. The House of the Seven Gables B. The Scarlet Letter C. The Portrait of a Lady D. The Pioneers

  37.Like Nathaniel Hawthorne,(   )also manages to achieve the effect of ambiguity through symbolism and allegory in his narratives.

  A. Mark Twain B. Henry James C. R. W. Emerson D. Herman Melville

  38.In his realistic fiction, Henry James’s primary concern is to present the(   ).

  A. inner life of human beings B. American Civil War and its effects

  C. life on the Mississippi River D. Calvinistic view of original sin

  39.Which of the following is NOT a typical feature of Mark Twain’s writing style?(   )

  A. Simple vernacular. B. Local color.

  C. Lengthy psychological analyses. D. Richness of irony and humor.

  40.Which of the following statements about E. Grierson, the protagonist in Faulkner’s story“A Rose for Emily,”is NOT true?(   )

  A. She has a distorted personality. B. She is physically deformed and paralyzed.

  C. She is the symbol of the old values of the South. D. She is the victim of the past glory.

  PART TWO (60 POINTS)

  Ⅱ. Reading Comprehension (16 points, 4 for each)

  Read the quoted parts carefully and answer the questions in English. Write your answer in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

  41.“Words are like leaves; and where they most abound,

  Much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found”

  Questions:

  A. Identify the poem and the poet. B. What idea do the two lines express?

  42.“To be so distinguished, is an honor, which, being very little accustomed to favors from the great, I know not well how to receive, or in what terms to acknowledge.”

  Questions:

  A. Identify the work and the author. B. What is the tone of author?

  43.“‘Faith! Faith!’cried the husband. ‘Look up to Heaven, and resist the Wicked One.’”

  Questions:

  A. Identify the work and the author. B. What idea does the quoted sentence express?

  44.“We passed the School, where Children strove

  At Recess—in the Ring—

  We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain—

  We passed the Setting Sun—”

  Questions: A. Identify the poem and the poet.

  B. What do“the School,” “the Fields”and“the Setting Sun”stand for respectively?

  Ⅲ. Questions and Answers (24 points in all, 6 for each)

  Give brief answers to each of the following questions in English. Write your answers in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

  45.As a rule, and allegory is a story in verse or prose with a double meaning: a surface meaning, and an implied meaning. List two works as examples of allegory. What is the implied meaning an allegory is usually concerned with?

  46.“Let it not be supposed by the enemies of‘the system,’that during the period of his solitary incarceration, Oliver was denied the benefit of exercise, the pleasure of society, or the advantages of religious consolation.”

  What do you think Charles Dickens intends to say in the above ironic statement taken from Oliver Twist?

  47.Whitman has made radical changes in the form of poetry by choosing free verse as his medium of expression. What are the characteristics of Whitman’s free verse?

  48.Some of Hemingway’s heroes are regarded as the Hemingway code heroes. Whatever the differences in experience and age, they all have something in common which Hemingway values. What are the characteristics of the Hemingway code hero?

  Ⅳ. Topics for Discussion (20 points in all, 10 for each)

  Write no less than 150 words on each of the following topics in English in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

  49.Elizabeth Bennet, the heroine in Pride and Prejudice, is often regarded as the most successful character created by Jane Austen. Make a brief comment on Elizabeth’s character.

  50.Take Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn as an example to illustrate the statement that Mark Twain was a unique writer in American literature.

  温馨小贴士:正确对待考研英语作文模板

  快考研了,对于英语作文的复习,大家比较常用的方法就是背模板,来听听一些阅卷老师的看法:

  一、作文模板要背,但不要背太多。关键是要准!老师是人,当然知道大家都是模板,不会因为这个难为大家。模板不是错,也没有歧视,但你连摸版都背不准,都背错,那就是你的不对了.我发现很多同学上下句不连贯,但都很优美,可见是拼接的,按本人经验,模版一个就可以对付大多数,问题是你要会用,而不是背一堆,又不准,同时还自己拼,那怎么能行?

  二、考场上除非万不得已不要抄上面卷面上的句子。本人第一天连续发现4张卷子句子相同。上报组长,雷同卷,差点按0分处理,后来还好又发现类似卷子,原来都是从翻译抄下来的,0分终于避免了,但8分以下是跑不了了,欺骗老师啊~~~~

  三、要有发光点,注意你是在考研,你让老师看到的是important,there be,那就等着8分左右吧,好象中国学生最会的句子就是there be,一片there be,更郁闷的是,有人还把时态弄错了,那完了,祈祷吧!用词,要对的起研究生(Q吧) 考试的水平啊,你就不能换点高级的词吗?

  四、最重要的是每段开头.我算了一下,每份卷子,快的老师5秒,我差不多要10多秒。而且还要写两个名字,你觉得我能看到什么?首句!我们肯定不会乱改,但你要是在首句被我们看见低级词、低级句子、低级错误,那完了,这就决定你最终分数,就算你后面写的再好,也完了,前面是定性的,后面是定量的记得我的话!!!

  五、多用难句,难词。要让我在枯燥的工作中惊艳,而且在5秒内,你就只有让我觉得,你很牛啊,从句子看出来,同时注意,不要写错!

  六、一定要检查!特别是普通用法,要是普通用法错误,直接降一等,难的用法错了也就算了。你连there be都错,那能怪老师吗?我给的2个高分被组长打回原形,就是因为有低级错误!不要出错!

  七、字体优美!强烈建议练练字,能写斜体的就很好,至少多3分,不能写的,字写明白,否则,损失的不止3分。

  八、从07年北京地区改卷来看,分数比较多的是在,7,8左右,要按文章要求写,文章第一段多是描绘,注意上下句衔接,同时要有铺垫,不要上来第一个词就是confidence,太突兀了,看了有点晕。

  九、作文不用花太多时间,但不花时间绝对不行,还是我说的,三个方面

  1:背熟一个模版并运用好

  2:不出错误

  3:让老师惊艳的词句,就差不多了。

  十、小作文没改,不知道,不过似乎他们看的速度比我们快的多,为你们祈祷~~呵呵。

  十一、补充,套话还是要学的。背一点,最后可以筹字数起码,用的好的话也是个闪光点。

  十二、好象没什么了,记住相信老师,北京地区分数低,不是老师随意压分,是我们严格执行标准,你们能做的,是提高水平!

  十句对你不客气的英语口语

  10句对你不客气的英语口语

  1. Just wait and see. I won't let you get away with that.

  咱们走着瞧。我不会让你得逞的。

  2. You'll be sorry.

  你会后悔的。

  3. You're gonna get what's coming to you.

  你会得到报应的。

  4. If you're looking for a fight, you don't have to look far.

  如果你想找人打架的话,不用找太远。

  5. Watch your mouth. Do you know who you're talking to?

  说话客气一点。你知道你在跟谁说话吗?

  6. I'll get even with you sooner or later.

  跟你的这笔账我迟早会要回来的。

  7. Listen, you've picked the wrong person to quarrel with.

  听着,你找错吵架的对象了。

  8. You'd better take that back.

  你最好收回那句话。

  9. You want to take it outside? Anytime!

  你想到外头解决(干架)吗?随時奉陪!

  10. Don't mess with me! / Don't get fresh with me!

  不要惹我!/ 给我放尊重一点!

  英美文学作家作品

  ■ 英国部分

  古英语Old English 450-1066<Beowulf

  中世纪英语(文学) Medieval English 1066 - middle 14th century

  乔叟Geoffrey Chaucer - the father of English poetry<The Canterbury Tales first time to use 'heroic couplet' 英雄体双行诗

  文艺复兴(含义)The Renaissance - rebirth or revival

  人文主义Humanism - the essence of the Renaissance, the dignity of human being & the importance of the present life

  1.斯宾塞Edmund Spenser - the poets' poet<The Faerie Queen 诗人中的诗人 《仙后》

  2.马洛Christopher Marlowe - University Wits, the pioneer of English drama  Blank verse无韵诗体, hyperbole夸张

  浮士德博士的悲剧<Dr. Faustus-- the human passion for knowledge, power and happiness 对知识、权利、幸福的追求

  <The Passionate Shepherd to His Love pastoral(牧人的,田园的) life

  3.莎士比亚William Shakespeare - above all writers in the past and in the present time

  四大悲剧Four tragedies - Hamlet, Othello, King Lear & Macbeth

  十四行诗第18首<Sonnet 18 eternal or immortal beauty

  《威尼斯商人》<The Merchant of Venice to praise the friendship between Antonio and Bassanio, to idealize Portia a heroine of great beauty, wit and loyalty, to expose the insatiable greed and brutality

  《哈姆雷特》<Hamlet hesitate between fact and fiction, language and action, too sophisticated to degrade his nature to the conventional role of a stage revenger (复仇者) To be, or not to be - to live on in this world or to die; to suffer or to take action 独白 Soliloquy or monologue - fully reveal the inner conflict of the characters

  4.培根Francis Bacon - brevity, compactness(简洁) & powerfulness, his essays is an important landmark in the development of English prose Inductive method 归纳法 in place of deductive method 演绎法

  《论学习》<Of Studies uses and benefits of study - studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Studies perfect nature, and are perfected by experience. Different ways adopted by different people to pursue studies - studies and experience are complementary 互补 to each other. The correct attitude to reading books - to weigh and consider. How studies exert influence over human character - reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.

  5.邓恩John Donne

  玄学诗派metaphysical poetry - break away from love poetry, a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences and attitudes, and a free range of feelings and moods Conceits, syllogism 三段论

  《日出》<The Sun Rising the busy sun is always ready to interfere with(干扰) other things and everywhere?

  《致死神》<Death, Be Not Proud whatever you are, you can not escape from death. When you are living, you are always in the shadow of death. Death only lasts a moment, our life after death is eternal. The more pleasure the death gives people, not only the pleasure of the rest & the sleep, because 'whom the gods love die young'. Though death is usually considered powerful, it actually provides a rest for a man's body and a birth for his soul.

  6.弥尔顿John Milton

  《失乐园》<Paradise Lost the only generally acknowledged epic in English literature since Beowulf. The conflict is between human love and spiritual duty. In heaven, Satan led a rebellion against God with his unconquerable will.

  《复乐园》<Paradise Regained

  《力士参孙》<Samson Agonistes the most perfect example of the verse drama after the Greek style in English.

  新古典主义Neoclassicism - a revival of interest in the old classical works, order, logic, restrained emotion抑制情感 & accuracy 怯懦

  启蒙思想(运动) Enlightenment - a progressive intellectual movement, reason (rationality), equality & science

  哥特式小说Gothic novel - mystery, horror & castles 神秘、恐怖

  7.班扬John Bunyan

  (“浮华集市”)<The Vanity Fair from 《天路历程》<The Pilgrim's Progress, a religious allegory (寓言), pursue the truth

  8..蒲伯Alexander Pope

  《论批评》<An Essay on Criticism a poem written in heroic couplets, criticize the present poem lack of true taste & call on people to turn to the old Greek and Roman writers for guidance(指导), 'true wit' is best set in a plain (simple & clear) style.

  “words are like leaves; and where they most abound. Much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found. ”what idea do the two lines express?

  On fruit trees, where leaves are plentiful, fruit will be few. Similarly, in a piece of writing, where too many fine words are used, good sense will be reduced.

  9. 笛福Daniel Defoe - the first writer study of the lower-class people《罗宾汉》<Robinson Crusoe, praise the human labor and the Puritan fortitude 清教徒坚韧

  10.斯威夫待Jonathan Swift - a master satirist讽刺作家. In his opinion, human nature is seriously and permanently永存的 flawed有瑕疵的  Proper words in proper places

  《温和的建议》<A Modest Proposal

  《格列佛游记》<Gulliver's Travels, four parts - Lilliput, Brobdingnag, Flying Island & Houyhnhnm

  11.菲尔丁Henry Fielding –英语小说之父 Father of English novel, Prose Homer Comic epic in prose

  《汤姆?琼斯》<The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling

  12.约翰逊Samuel Johnson - first combine an English dictionary, last neoclassicist enlightener

  《英文字典》<A Dictionary of the English Language

  致切斯特菲尔德勋爵的信<To the Right Honorable the Earl of Chesterfield

  13. 谢里丹Richard Brinsley Sheridan - the only important English dramatist of the 18th century

  《?情敌》<The Rivals and《造谣学校》 <The School for Scandal are regarded as important links between the masterpieces of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw.

  14.格雷Thomas Gray

  The Graveyard(墓地) School《写在教堂墓地的挽歌》<Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard

  ?浪漫传奇Romantic - emotion over reason, spontaneous emotion, a change from the outer world of social civilization to the inner world of 人文主义精神the human spirit, poetry should be free from all rules, imagination, nature, commonplace

  The romantic period began with the publication of Wordsworth and Coleridge's<Lyrical Ballads

  浪漫主义时期 The Romantic Period

  15.布莱克William Blake -engraver雕刻家

  《扫烟囱的人》<The Chimney Sweeper from《天真与经验之歌》<Songs of Innocence a happy and innocence world from children's eye; <The Chimney Sweeper from 《经验之歌》<Songs of Experience a world of misery, poverty, disease, war and repression with a melancholy 忧郁的tone from men eyes Childhood, paradoxes, a pairing of opposites; 老虎< The Tyger

  16.华兹华斯William Wordsworth - the leading figure of the English romantic poetry, simple, spontaneous自发的, worshipper of nature' Lake Poets' - William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge & Robert Southey骚赛

  He defines the poet as a 'man speaking to men', and poetry as 'the spontaneous overflow洋溢 of powerful feelings, which originates in 'emotion recollected沉思默想的 in tranquillity安静'.

  “我孤独地游荡,就象一朵云”<I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud the poet is very cheerful with recalling the beautiful sights. In the poem on the beauty of nature, the reader is presented a vivid picture of lively and lovely daffodils 水仙 and poet's philosophical ideas and mystical thoughts.

  《威斯敏斯特桥上,1802年9月3日》<Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802 the sonnet describes a vivid picture of a beautiful morning in London, silent, bright, glittering, smokeless & mildly. It is so touching a sight that the poet expressed his religion piety 虔诚for nature.

  《她居住在人迹罕至的地方》<She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways

  《孤独的割麦女》<The Solitary Reaper thanks to poet's rich imagination, the mass of associations, this commonplace happening becomes a striking event, the poet succeeds in making the reader's share his emotion. The poem also shows the poet's passionate love of nature.

  17.柯勒律治Samuel Taylor Coleridge - supernatural, remote Poet can be divided into two groups - the demonic (supernatural) & the conversational(对话的)

  The demonic group includes 3 masterpieces –《古舟子咏》(又,《老水手之行》)<The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,《库里斯特白》(克里斯塔贝尔)< Christabel ,《忽必列汗》<Kubla Khan

  18.拜伦George Gordon Byron

  拜伦式英雄'Byronic hero' is a proud, mysterious rebel figure of noble origin贵族血统, against tyrannical残暴的 rules or moral principles. Such a hero appears first in《恰尔德?哈罗德游记》<Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.

  <Song for the Luddites 'will die fighting, or live free' the Luddites destroyed the machines in their protest against unemployment. The poet's great sympathy of the workers in their struggle against the capitalists is clearly shown.

  <The Isles of Greece from《唐璜》 <Don Juan (the masterpiece of Byron, a long satirical poem), song by a Greek singer at the wedding of Don Juan and Haidee. 'Fill high the bowl with Samian wine'?

  19.雪莱Percy Bysshe Shelley

  Shelley’s masterpiece, Prometheus unbound, Is a verse drama. which borrows the basic story from a Greek play.

  英国人民之歌<Men of England

  《西风颂》<Ode to the West Wind terza rima三行体, destructive-constructive potential, hopeful, 'I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!', 'If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?'

  20.济慈John Keats

  4 great odes – 忧郁颂<Ode on Melancholy,希腊古瓮颂 <Ode on a Grecian Urn, 夜莺颂<Ode to a Nightingale, 倦怠颂<Ode to Psyche

  <Ode on a Grecian Urn the contrast between the permanence永久 of art and the transience 短暂of human passion, 'Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter', 'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'

  21.简奥斯汀Jane Austen

  《傲慢与偏见》<Pride and Prejudice

  维多利亚时期 The Victorian Period

  达尔文《物种起源》Darwin's<The Origin of Species and 《人类起源》<The Descent of Man shook the traditional faith, everything is created by God

  功利主义Utilitarianism was widely accepted and practiced Critical realists were all concerned about the fate of the common people

  22.狄更斯Charles Dickens - one of the greatest critical realist writers批判现实主义作家 of the Victorian Age维多利亚时代

  Character-portrayal描写 is the most distinguishing feature特点 of his works A mingling混合 of humor and pathos 悲伤,惆怅

  《双城记》<A Tale of Two Cities 《雾都孤儿》<Oliver Twist

  23.勃朗蒂姐妹The Bront? Sisters - Charlotte, Emily & Anne Bront?, a rather reserved and simple girl, was very much a child of nature.

  《简?爱》<Jane Eyre 《呼啸山庄》<Wuthering Heights

  24.丁尼生Alfred Tennyson - invents dramatic monologue, Poet Laureate 桂冠诗人, a real artist

  拍吧, 拍吧, 拍吧<Break, Break, Break the death of his best friend, his sadness feeling are contrasted with the 无忧无虑carefree, innocent joys of the children and the unfeeling无情的 movement of the ship and the sea waves

  《过沙洲》<Crossing the Bar we can feel his fearlessness无畏的 towards death, his faith in God and an afterlife死后. 'Crossing the bar' means leaving this world and entering进入 the next world阴间

  ”尤利西斯”<Ulysses not endure忍耐 the peaceful commonplace平凡的事 everyday life, old as he is, he persuades his old followers to go with him and to set sail again to pursue a new world and new knowledge, dramatic monologue, 'Myself not least, but honour'd of them all' means I am not the least important, but honored by all of them

  25.布朗宁Robert Browning - the most original poet, who improve and mature the dramatic monologue

  《指环与书》<The Ring and the Book his masterpiece

  我逝去的公爵夫人<My Last Duchess this dramatic monologue is the duke's speech addressed to the agent who comes to negotiate the marriage, the duke is a self-conceited, cruel and tyrannical man

  26.乔治?艾略特George Eliot: As a 女性作家woman of exceptional 特有的intelligence and life experience, she shows a particular concern for the destiny of women

  《米尔德马契》<Middlemarch a sharp contrast is set between the cold, lifeless, dull house and Dorothea who is full of youthful life and vigor

  27.哈代Thomas Hardy - both a 自然主义naturalistic and a critical realist writer 地方乡土色彩Local-colored, Wessex, 'novels of character and environment'

  《德勃家的苔斯》<Tess of the D'Urbervilles experience is as to intensity剧烈, and not as to duration持续

  ?夜里的相会<Meeting at Night  ?早上的分别<Parting at Morning

  现代主义 The Modern Period

  28.萧伯纳George Bernard Shaw- 1884 join the Fabian Society, strongly against the credo信条 of “art for art’s sake”, vehemently 激烈condemned the “well made” but cheap, hollow plays. He wrote more than 50 plays. Mission of his drama was to reveal the moral, political and economic truth from a radical reformist point of view.

  《鳏夫的房产》<Widower’s Houses 《康帝坦》<Candida  《华伦夫人的职业》<Mrs. Warren’s Profession 《恺撒和克里奥佩特拉》<Caesar and Cleopatra 《圣女贞德》<St. Joan  《人与超人》<Man and Superman  《皮格马利翁》<Pygmalion  《回到麦修色拉》<Back to Methuselah  《苹果车》<The Apple Cart

  29.高尔斯华绥 John Galsworthy- was born into a upper-middle-class上层(富裕的)中产阶级 family.

  《银盒》<The Silver Box established his prominent novelist and playwright in the public mind.

  第一个三步曲Trilogy--《福赛特世家》<The Forsyte Saga:《有家产的人》<The Man of Property,《进退两难》(骑虎难下)<In Chancery, 《出租》<To Let

  第二个三步曲second Forsyte trilogy:《现代喜剧》<A Modern Comedy

  第三个三步曲<End of the Chapter

  30.叶芝 William Butler Yeats was born into an Anglo-Irish Protestant family in Dublin. organized the Irish National Dramatic Socirty and opened the Abbey Theatre. a moderate nationalist. build a mystical system of beliefs(history, life followed a circular spiral螺旋 pattern consisting of long cycles which repeatd themselves over and over on different levels).

  象征symbol : “winding stairs旋梯”, “spinning tops陀螺”, “gyres旋转”, “spirals”

  long poetic career, 3 period

  《茵尼斯弗利岛》<The Lake Isle of Innisfree  《梦见仙境的人》<The Man Who Dreamed of Fneryland

  《丽达及天鹅》<Leda and The Swan  《在学童们中间》<Down By The Sally Gardens

  31. T. S.艾略特 T. S. Eliot

  《普鲁弗洛克的情歌》<The Love Song of J.Alfred  《荒原》<The Waste Land  《灰星期三》<Ash Wednesday

  《四个四重奏》<Four Quartets

  32.劳伦斯 D. H. Lawrence

  《儿子和情人》<Sons and Lovers  《虹》<The Rainbow 《恋爱中的'女人》<Woman in Love

  33.乔伊斯 James Joyce

  《都柏林人》<Dubliners  《青年艺术家的肖像》<The Portrait of The Artist As a Young Man  《尤利西斯》<Ulysses

  ■ 美国部分

  Started with Washington Irving's<The Sketch Book and ended with Whitman's <Leaves of Grass, also

  called 'the American Renaissance'Free expression of emotion, escapes from society, and return to nature

  New England Transcendentalism 先验主义/超验主义

  1.欧文Washington Irving - father of the American short stories, the American Goldsmith

  Perfected the best classic style that American literature ever produced

  First novel <A History of New York

  <The Sketch Book contains German folk tales <Rip Van , <The Legend of Sleepy Hollow

  2.爱默生Ralph Waldo Emerson - the spokesman of New England Transcendentalism movement

  <The American Scholar, <Self - Reliance, <The Over-Soul

  <The Poet a reflection upon the aesthetic problems in terms of the present state of literature in America

  <Experience a discussion about the conflict between idealism and ordinary lifeAmerican Puritanism, European Romanticism, intuitive knowledge, over-soul, individual, nature

  <Nature is regarded as the Bible of New England Transcendentalism

  3.霍桑Nathaniel Hawthorne

  Interior of the heart, there is evil in every human heart, which may remain latent, perhaps, through the whole life, but circumstances may rouse it to activity

  <The Scarlet Letter

  <Young Goodman Brown

  4.惠特曼Walt Whitman

  Openness, freedom, individualism

  I - me, my nation (society), Free verse, Envelope structure, Catalogue (Listing)

  A new ideal, a new world, a new life-style

  <There Was a Child Went Forth how a child is greatly influenced by his growing environments

  <Cavalry Crossing a Ford a scene of the American Civil War, all the movements described in this picture are frozen.

  <Song of Myself Whitman is a man bubbling with energy and laden with ideas, spontaneous expression of his original ideas

  5.麦尔维尔Herman Melville - a master of allegory and symbolism, like Hawthorne<Moby-Dick the first American prose epic, Ishmael both as a character and a narrator, the captain, Ahab is a monomaniac

  Realistic period - the Gilded Age, the poor poorer and the rich richer, people's attention was now directed to the interesting features of everyday existence

  Local colorism, social Darwinism, bestiality, beyon man's control

  6.马克?土温Mark Twain - the true father of American literature

  Local colorist, vernacular, simple sentence, 'the damned human race' The Gilded Age

  3 boyhood books<Life on the Mississippi, <The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, <Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

  <Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Huck's inner conflict about whether or not he should write a letter to tell Miss Watson where Jim is.

  7.亨利詹姆斯Henry James - international theme, psychological realistStream of consciousness, interior monologue, free association

  <Daisy Miller the narrator is an American expatriate, named Winterbourne. Daisy is the most innocent girl. The clash is between two different cultures.

  8.迪金森Emily Dickinson

  Based on her own experiences, her sorrows and joys

  <This is my letter to the World express Dickinson's anxiety about her communication with the outside world.

  <I heard a Fly buzz - when I died - description of a moment of death

  <I like to see it lap the Miles Dickinson makes the train part of nature by animalizing it, like a horse.

  <Because I could not stop for Death - personify death and immortality so as to make her message strongly felt

  9.西奥多?德莱塞Theodore Dreiser - America's literary naturalists Case history including everything Determinism (heredity biological & environment), survival of the fittest, the jungle law Trilogy of Desire -<The Financier, <The Titan, <The Stoic <Sister Carrie 'who shall cast the first stone?'

  The modern period - the second American Renaissance, the expatriate movement, the Lost Generation, a transformation from order to disorder

  Seize the day, enjoy the present, spiritual wasteland, collective unconscious, psychoanalysis

  Imagist movement, Jazz Age

  10.庞德Ezra Pound - a leading spokesman of the 'Imagist Movement'

  <The Cantos

  <In a Station of the Metro Pound attempts to produce the emotion he felt when he walked down into a Paris subway station and suddenly saw a number of faces in the dim light. To capture the emotions, Pound uses the image of petals on wet, black boughs.

  <The River - Merchant's Wife: A Letter

  <A Pact agreement with Whitman's free verse

  11.弗洛斯特Robert Lee Frost - four times awarded Pulitzer Prize, pastoral life and scene

  <After Apple-Picking

  <The Road Not Taken

  <Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

  12.尤金?奥尼尔Eugene O'Neill - founder of the American drama, won the Pulitzer Prize four times

  毛猿<The Hairy Ape

  13.司哥特?费兹杰拉德F. Scott Fitzgerald - spokesman of the Jazz Age, Dollar Decade, 1920s

  A double vision of the Jazz Age, both an insider and an outsiderAmerican Dream

  了不起的盖茨比<The Great Gatsby

  14.海明威Ernest Hemingway - awarded the Nobel Prize

  Iceberg style, Code hero, the lost generation, grace under pressure

  <Indian Camp from <In Our Time birth and death coexist

  15.福克纳?William Faulkner - awarded a Nobel Prize

  South, imprisonment in the past

  Stream of consciousness, multiple points of view

  Yoknapatawpha Country

  <A Rose for Emily Emily is regarded as the symbol of tradition and the

  old way of life. Thus her death is like the falling of a monument.

  20xx年4月自考英美文学选读试题

  2004年4月自考英美文学选读试题

  全部题目用英文作答,并将答案写在答题纸相应位置上,否则不计分。

  PART ONE (40 POINTS)

  Ⅰ.Multiple Choice (40 points in all, 1 for each)

  Select from the four choices of each item the one that best answers the question or completes the statement. Write your correct answer on the answer sheet.

  1.“And we will sit upon the rocks, /Seeing the shepherds feed their flocks,/By shallow rivers to whose falls/Melodious birds sing madrigals.” The above lines are taken from ______.

  A. Milton’s Paradise Lost B. Marlowe’s “The Passionate shepherd to His Love”

  C. Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 18” D. John Donne’s “The Sun Rising”

  2.The English Renaissance period was an age of ______ .

  A. poetry and drama B. drama and novel C. novel and poetry D. romance and poetry

  3.Here are four lines taken from Edmund Spenser’s The Faerie Queene: “But on his brest a bloudie Crosse he bore,/The deare remembrance of his dying Lord,/For whose sweete sake that glorious badge he wore,/And dead as living ever him adored.” Who is the “dying Lord” discussed in the above lines?

  A. Beowulf B. King Arthur C. Jesus Christ D. Jupiter

  4.In Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice, Antonio could not pay back the money he borrowed from Shylock, because ______. A. his money was all invested in the newly-emerging textile industry

  B. his enterprise went bankrupt C. Bassanio was able to pay his own debt D. his ships had all been lost

  5. Which of the following statements best illustrates the theme of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18?

  A. The speaker eulogizes the power of Nature. B. The speaker satirizes human vanity.

  C. The speaker praises the power of artistic creation. D. The speaker meditates on man’s salvation.

  6. In English poetry, a four-line stanza is called ______.

  A. heroic couplet B. quatrain C. Spenserian stanza D. terza rima

  7. “Let not Ambition mock their useful toil,/Their homely joys, and destiny obscure;/Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile /The short and simple annals of the poor.” The above lines are taken from .

  A. Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism B. Coleridge’s “Kubla Khan”

  C. John Donne’s “The Sun Rising”

  8. By making the truth-seeking pilgrims suffer at the hands of the people of Vanity Fair, John Bunyan intends to show the prevalent political and religious ______of his time.

  A. persecution B. improvement C. prosperity D. disillusionment

  9. The 18th century witnessed a new literary form-the modern English novel, which, contrary to the medieval romance, gives a ______ presentation of life of the common people.

  A. romantic B. realistic C. prophetic D. idealistic

  10. As a whole, ______is one of the most effective and devastating criticisms and satires of all aspects in the then English and European life— socially, politically, religiously, philosophically, scientifically, and morally.

  A. Moll Flanders B. Gulliver’s Travels C. Pilgrim’s Progress D. The School for Scandal

  11. An honest, kind-hearted young man, who is full of animal spirit and lacks prudence, is expelled from the paradise and has to go through hard experience to gain knowledge of himself and finally to have been accepted both by a virtuous lady and a rich relative .

  The above sentence may well sum up the theme of Fielding’s work .

  A. Jonathan Wild the Great B. Tom Jones C. The Coffe-House Politician D. Amelia

  12. In Sheridan’s The School for scandal, the man who wins the hand of his beloved as well as the inheritance of his rich uncle is ______ .

  A. Charles Surface B. Joseph Surface C. Sir Peter Teazle D. Sir Benjamin Backbite

  13. Which of the following works best represents the national spirit of the 18th-century England?

  A. Robinson Crusoe B. Gulliver’s Travels C. Jonathan Wild the Great D. A Sentimental Journey

  14. Shelley’s masterpiece, Prometheus Unbound, is a verse drama, which borrows the basic story from ______ .

  A. the Bible B. a German legend C. a Greek play D. One Thousand and One Nights

  15. In the first part of the novel Pride and prejudice, Mr. Darcy has a (n) ______ of the Bennet family .

  A. high opinion B. great admiration C. low opinion D. erroneous view

  16. In Byron’s poem “Song for the Luddites,” the word “Luddite” refers to the ______ .

  A. workers who destroyed the machines in their protest against unemployment

  B. rising bourgeoisie who fights against the aristocratic class

  C. descendents of the ancient king ,Lud D. poor country people who suffered under the rule of the landlord class

  17. Mr. Micawber in David Copperfield and Sam Well in Pickwick Papers are perhaps the best ______ characters created by Charles Dickens.

  A. comic B.tragic C. round D.sophisticated

  18. A typical feature of the English Victorian literature is that writers became social and moral ______ , exposing all kinds of social evils.

  A. revolutionaries B. idealists C. critics D. defenders

  19. “Is it not sufficient for your infernal selfishness, that while you are at peace I shall writhe in the torments of hell?”(Heathcliff uttered the sentence in the death scene of Catherine from Chapter XV of Wuthering Heights.) The word “hell” at the end of the quoted sentence refers to ______ .

  A. Heaven B. Hades C. the next world D. this world

  20. A typical Forsyte, according to John Galsworthy, is a man with a strong sense of ______ ,who never pays any attention to human feelings.

  A. justice B. humor C. morality D. property

  21. “He was silent with conceit of his son. Mrs. Morel sniffed, as if it were nothing.”(Sons and Lovers by D.H.Lawrence)From the above quotation, we can see that Mrs. Morel’s attitude to her husband is ______ .

  A. sincerely warm B. genuinely kind

  C. seemingly angry D. merely contemptuous

  22. A boy makes a quest of his idealized childish love through painful experience up to the point of losing his innocence and coming to see the drabness and harshness of the adult world.

  The above sentence may well sum up the major theme of ______.

  A. Eliot’s poem The love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock B. Bernard shaw’s play Mrs. Warren’s Profession

  C. Joyce’s story Araby D. Lawrence’s story The Horse Dealer’s Daughter

  23. Linguistically, compared with the writings of Mark Twain, Henry James’s fiction is noted for his ______.

  A. frontier vernacular B. rich colloquialism C. vulgarly descriptive words D. refined elegant language

  24. Which of the following statements about Washington Irving is NOT true?

  A. Literary imagination should breed in a land rich in the past culture.

  B. He is preoccupied with the Calvinistic view of original sin and the mystery of evil.

  C. His stories are among the best of the American literature.

  D. Some of his works are based on the materials of the European legendary tales.

  25. Which of the following is NOT one of the main ideas advocated by Emerson, the chief spokesman of New England Transcendentalism?

  A. As an individual, man is divine and can develop and improve himself infinitely.

  B. Nature exercises a healthy and restorative influence on human beings.

  C. There exists an emotional communication between an individual soul and the universal “Oversoul.”

  D. Evil and sin are ever present in human heart and will pass on from one generation to another.”

  26. Whitman’s poems are characterized by all the following features EXCEPT ______ .

  A. the strict poetic form B. the free and natural rhythm

  C. the easy flow of feelings D. the simple and conversational language

  27. “Then all collapsed, and the great shroud of the sea rolled on as it rolled five thousand years ago.” In the quoted sentence, the author might imply that ______.

  A. nothing changes in the 5000 years of human history B. man’s desire to conquer nature can only end in his own destruction C. nature is evil as it was 5000 years ago D. nature has the ultimate creative power

  28. “Standing on the bare ground,—my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space ,—all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball. I am nothing. I see all. The currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God.” The above passage is taken from ______.

  A. Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin B. Cooper’s “Leatherstocking Tales”

  C. Emerson’s “Nature” D. Dreiser’s Sister Carrie

  29. Which of the following works best illustrates the Calvinistic view of original sin?

  A. Stowe’s Uncle Ton’s Cabin B. James’s The Portrait of a Lady.

  C. Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms D. Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter.

  30. Beside symbolism, all the following qualities EXCEPT ______are fused to make Melville’s Moby-Dick a world classic.

  A. narrative power B. psychological analysis C. speculative agility D. optimistic view of life

  31. In all his novels Theodore Dreiser sets himself to project the ______ American values. For example, in Sister Carrie, there is not one character whose status is not determined economically.

  A. Puritan B. materialistic C. psychological D. religious

  32. In Daisy Miller, Henry James reveals Daisy’s ______ by showing her relatively unreserved manners.

  A. hypocrisy B. cold and indifference C. grace and patience D. Americanness

  33. The raft with which Huck and Jim make their voyage down the Mississippi River may symbolize all the following EXCEPT ______.

  A. a return to nature

  B. an escape from evils, injustices, and corruption of the civilized society

  C. the American society in the early 19th century

  D. a small world where people of different colors can live friendly and happily

  34. Emily Grierson, the protagonist in Faulkner’s story “A Rose for Emily,” can be regarded as a symbol for all the following qualities EXCEPT______.

  A. old values B. rigid ideas of social status C. bigotry and eccentricity D. harmony and integrity

  35. As a Modernist poet ,Pound is noted for his active involvement in the ______ .

  A. cubist school of modern painting B. Imagist Movement

  C. stream-of-consciousness technique D. German Expressionism

  36. The statement that a boy’s night journey to an Indian village to witness the violence of both birth and death provides all the possibilities of a learning experience may well sum up the major theme of ______ .

  A. Faulkner’s story “A Rose for Emily” B. Hemingway’s story “Indian Camp”

  C. Irving’s story “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” D. James’s story “Daisy Miller”

  37. Which of the following plays by O’Neill can be read autobiographically?

  A. The Hairy Ape B. The Emperor Jones C. The Iceman Cometh D. Long Day’s Journey Into Night

  38. When we say that a poor young man from the West tried to make his fortune in the East but was disillusioned in the quest of an idealized dream, we are probably discussing about ______’s thematic concern in his fiction writing.

  A. Henry James B. Scott Fitzgerald C. Ernest Hemingway D. William Faulkner

  39.After his experiences in the forest, Young Goodman Brown returns to Salem ______.

  A. desperate and gloomy B. renewed in his faith C. wearing a black veil D. unaware of his own sin

  40. According to Mark Twain, in river towns up and down the Mississippi, it was every boy’s dream to some day grow up to be ______.

  A. Methodist preacher B. a justice of the peace C. a riverboat pilot D. a pirate on the Indian ocean

  PART TWO (60POINTS)

  Ⅱ.Reading comprehension(16 points,4 for each)

  Read the quoted parts carefully and answer the questions in English. Write your answer in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

  41. “One short sleep past, we wake eternally,

  And death shall be no more; death, thou shalt die.”

  Questions:

  A. Identify the poem and the poet. B.What does the word “sleep” mean? C. What idea do the two lines express?

  42. “Never did sun more beautifully steep

  In his first splendor, valley, rock, or hill;

  Ne’er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!

  The river glideth at his own sweet will:

  Dear God! The very houses seem asleep;

  And all that mighty heart is lying still!”

  (William Wordsworth’s sonnet: “Composed upon Westminster Bridge” September 3, 1802)

  Questions:

  A. What does the word “glideth” in the fourth line mean?

  B. What kind of figure of speech is used by wordsworth to describe the “river”?

  C. What idea does the fourth line express?

  43. “With Blue—uncertain stumbling Buzz—

  Between the light—and me—

  And then the Windows failed—and then

  I could not see to see—” Questions:

  A. Identify the poem and the poet. B. What do “Windows” symbolically stand for?

  C. What idea does the quoted passage express?

  44. “‘Is dying hard, Daddy?’

  ‘No, I think it’s pretty easy, Nick, It all depends.”’

  Questions: A. Identify the work and the author.

  B. What was Nick preoccupied with when he asked the question?

  C. Why did the father add “It all depends” after he answered his son’s question?

  Ⅲ. Questions and Answers(24 points in all, 6 for each)

  Give brief answers to each of the following questions in English. Write your answers in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

  45. It is said that B. Shaw’s play, Mrs. Warren’s Profession, has a strong realistic theme, which fully reflects the dramatist’s Fabianist idea. Try to summarize this theme briefly.

  46. Emily Bronte used a very complicated narrative technique in writing her novel Wuthering Heights. Try to tell Bronte’s way of narration briefly.

  47. “In your rocking-chair, by your window dreaming, shall you long, alone. In your rocking-chair, by your window, shall you dream such happiness as you may never feel.” The two sentences are taken from Theodore Dreiser’s novel, Sister Carrie. What idea can you draw from the “rocking-chair”?

  48. The literary school of naturalism was quite popular in the late 19th century. What are the major characteristics of naturalism?

  Ⅳ. Topic Discussion(20 points in all, 10 for each)

  Write no less than 150 words on each of the following topics in English in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

  49. Discuss the possible theme in W.B. Yeats’s “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” and how that theme is presented in the poem.

  50. “My faith is gone!” cried he (Goodman Brown), after one stupefied moment. “There is no good on earth; and sin is but a name. Come, devil! For to thee is this world given.”

  Comment on this passage from Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown”.

  1-5 B A B D C 6-10 B D A B B 11-15 B A A C C 16-20 A A C D D 21-25 D C D B D 26-30 A B C D D

  31-35 B D C D B 36-40 B D B A C

  41. A. The peam is "Death,Be not Proud", which writted by John Donne

  B. The world "sleep" means "death";

  C. The two lines express the idea that there is nothing frightening in

  death. Though we might die,we can keep alive spiritually forever.

  42.A The word "glideth" means "flows"; B wordsworth uses personification to describe the "river"

  C The fourth line expresses the idea that the river is flowing happily as a living things , which implies the beauty of the nature;

  43. A The poem is "I heard as Fly buzz --when I died--" by Emily Dickinson.

  B "windows" symbolically stand for the door to heaven.

  C The quoted passage vividly describes the moment of my dying and expresses my doublt of the existence of eternal heaven.

  44. A. The work is "Indian Gamp" by Ernest Hemingway.

  B. Nick was preoccupied with the pain and violence of death.

  C. By adding "It all depends" the father meant that death means differently to different poeple. To such weak persons like the husband of the Indian woman it's a pretty easy,while strong-willed person will not easily commit suicide.

  IIII.

  45. The play deals with the themes of prostiution as a big bussiness in the bourgeois society . The play launches possibly the sharpest and the bitterest attack ever made by Shaw upon the very foundation of the "civilized" capitalist world.

  The play hits the very heart of capitalism as a social system according to which economic exploitation is not only considered the legitimate thing adopted everywhere but is pursued shamelessly by "dignified"members of the society through the lowest and the dirtiest means.

  46.There are complicated narrative levels in Wuthering Heights The main narrative is told by Nely ,Catherine's old nurse. to Mr. Lockwood,a temporary tenant at Grange. The latter gives an account of what he see at Wuthering Heights.In the main narrative by Nelly s the sub---narrative told through Isabella's letters a Nelly.While the central intrest is maintained,the sequence of its development is constantly disordered by flashbacks,This marks the story all the more enticing and genuine.

  47. From the "rocking-chair" we can draw that Carrie was dreaming of the bright future.

  Although she was often disillusioned ,she was not at all in despair.

  48. Naturalism is one school of realism where the author's tone in writing becomes less serious and less sympathetic but

  more ironic and more pesimistic. The American naturalism accepted the more negative implication of Darwin's evolutionary

  theory and used it to account for the behavior of theose characters in literary works who conceived as more or less complex combinations of inherited attributes,their habits conditioned by social and economic forces. They chose their subjects from the lower ranks of society,and portrayed misery and poverty of the 'underdogs' who were deomostrably victims of society and nature. One of the most familiarcially as an explanation of sexual desire, Articically naturalistic writings are usually unpolished in language,lacking in academic skills and unwieldy in structure. Philosophically,the naturalists believe that the realand true is always partially hidden form the eyes of the individual,or beyond his control.

  49. The major themes in Yeats's peoms are usually Celtic legends ,local folktales,or stories of the heroic in Irish history. Many of his early poems have a dream quality,expressing melancholy,passive and self-indulgent feelings.But ina number of poems, Yeats has achieved suggestive pattern of meaning by a careful countpointing of contrasting indeas or images like human and fairy, natural and artifical,domestic and wild ,and ephermral and permanent. "Innisfree" is just a popula representative fo such peomss;

  around a "fairlyland" background,the peom is imagery give the peom a haunting quality. The charity and control of the peotry is very delicate with natural imagery,dream-like atmospher and musical beauty. The possible theme is that tired of the life of his day, Yeats sought to escape into an ideal "fairlyland" where he could live calmy as a herimit and enjoy the beauty of nature. The peam consists of three quatrains of iambic pentameter ,with each stanza rhymed abab.Innisfree is an inlet in the lake in Irish lengends. Here the author is referring to a place for hermitage.

  50. This passage appears after Goodman Brown's experience in the forest. Brrown attends a witch's Sabbath in the woods and is confronted with a vision of human evil there. After he returns to his home,he lives a dismal and gloomy life because he is never able to believe in goodness or piety again.The passage exemplifies the concern of guilty and evil in Hawthorne's work. Its hero experience from the transition from naive young man who accepts both society in genral and his fellow men as individuals worth his regard to a sistrustful and doublful person.Howevers,the

  story is manipulated in such a way that we as readers fell that Hawthorne poses the question of Good and Evil in man but withholds his answer, and he does not permit hismself to determin whether the events of the night of trail are real or the mere figment of a dream.

  薄冰英语语法 第八章 被动语态

  第八章 被动语态

  8.1 语态的含义和种类

  语态(voice)是动词的一种形式,用以表示主语和谓语之间的关系。

  英语的语态分为主动语态(active voice)和被动语态(passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。如:

  (1)Yesterday! I parked my car outside the school. 昨天我把我的汽车停在学校外边。

  被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。如:

  (2)A sound of piano is heard in the adjoining room. 听到邻居房间里有钢琴声。

  被动语态常由助动词be加及物动词的过去分词构成。被动语态可以用于各种时态,但较常用的有下列十种:

  1)现在一般时

  (3)Xiao Wang, you are wanted in the office. 小王,办公室有事找你。

  (4)I am not so easily deceived. 我不是轻易上当受骗的。

  2)过去一般时

  (5)I was invited to the concert. 我应邀参加了音乐会。

  (6)Our house was built in 1969. 我们家的房子建于1969年。

  3)将来一般时

  (7)We hope that an agreement will be arrived at. 我们希望会达成一项协议。

  (8)This matter will be looked into in the future. 这件事将来是要查明的。

  4)过去将来一般时

  (9)He said that the bridge would be built next year. 他说这座桥明年将建成。

  (10)Another half-hour and all doors would be locked—all lights extinguished. 再过半小时,所有的门都要上锁—所有的灯都要熄灭。

  5)现在完成时

  (11)My car has been repaired. 我的汽车已修好了。

  (12)The party has been planned since the new year. 这聚会自新年起就已筹划了。

  6)过去完成时

  (13)The portieres that hung across the folding doors had been taken down for the summer. 折门上面的门帘夏天已经取下来。

  (14)Tootie looked at the lanterns that had been lighted and placed near the opening. 图蒂望着那些已经点着并放在洞口附近的提灯。

  7)将来完成时

  (15)The new books will have been entered in the register before another parcel arrives. 这些新书在下一批书到来前将登记完毕。

  (16)This class will have been taught by Mr. Brown for two years by next summer. 到明年夏天,这个班将由布朗先生教毕二年了。

  8)过去将来完成时

  (17)The headmaster said the article would been completed translated by six o’clock. 校长说这篇文章将在6点钟以前翻译完毕。

  (18)He said that the bridge would have been completed before July. 他说这桥将于7月前完成。

  9)现在进行时

  (19)This question is being discussed at the meeting. 这个问题正在会上讨论。

  (20)The children are being taken care of by their aunt. 孩子们现在正由姑母照看着。

  10)过去进行时

  (21)When I called, tea was being served. 我来拜访时,正值上茶之际。

  (22)With his fingers, he gently searched the crown and brim of his hat to be sure it wasn’t being crushed. 他用手指轻轻地摸找帽顶和帽边,以肯定它没有被压坏。

  [注一]完成进行时态一般不用被动语态。它们的被动意义可用完成时态来表示,如He has been being examined.(他已被考过。)一般应代之以He has been examined。将来进行时与过去将来进行时一般也不用被动语态。其被动意义可用一般时态来表示,如He will be being examined while we are there.(他将在我们在那里时被考。)可代之以He will be examined while we are there。

  [注二]关于非限定动词的被动语态见本书第十章有关各节。

  被动语态除常用be加过去分词构成外,还可用“get+过去分词”结构。这种结构多用在口语中,后面一般不接by短语。如:

  (23)Hundreds of people get killed every year by traffic on the roads. 每年都几百人死于道路交通事故。

  (24)The boy got hurt on his way to school. 这男孩在上学的路上受伤了。

  被动语态可含有情态动词,其结构是“情态动词+be+过去分词”。如:

  (25)This must be done as soon as possible. 这件事必须尽快做。

  (26)What’s done cannot be undone. 覆水难收。

  (27)These stairs are very dangerous. They should be repaired. 这楼梯很危险,应该修理了。

  (28)Cross the road very carefully. Look both ways, or you might be knocked down. 过马路要非常小心,要看两边,不然会被车撞倒的。

  有不少短语动词相当于及物动词,所以这些短语动词亦有被动语态。如:

  (29)Many interesting experiments are carried out in our laboratory. 我们实验室做了许多有趣的实验。

  (30)Boxing was gone in for here in the early 1950s. 20世纪50年代初期,这里拳击很盛行。

  有些由“动词+名词+介词”构成的短语动词,其结构比较松散,变成被动语态时也可以将名词和其后的介词拆开(使介词和其后的宾语合成一介词短语)。这种被动语态常用于正式文体中。如:

  (31)Mess had been made of the house. 家里乱作一团。(主动句是:The owner had made mess of the house.)

  (32)Good use is made of the library. 这图书馆的利用率很高。(主动句是:They make good use of the library.)

  8.2主动语态变被动语态

  主动语态变为被动语态,可分为下列三种情况:

  1)“主+ 谓+宾”句型变为被动语态时,先将主动结构中的宾语变为被动结构中的主语(宾语如为人称代词,须将宾格变为主格);然后将主动结构中谓语动词的主动语态变为被动语态;最后在谓语动词的被动语态之后加by,再将主动结构中的主语置于介词by之后(如为人称代词,须将其主格变为宾格)。如:

  (1)Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. 亚历山大?格雷厄姆?贝尔于1876年发明了电话。(主动结构)

  (2)The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. 电话是亚历山大?格雷厄姆?贝尔于1876年发明的。(被动结构)

  (3)The manager has not signed the papers. 经理没有在这些文件上签字。(主动结构)

  (4)The papers have not been signed by the manager. 这些文件还没有由经理签字。(被动结构)

  被动结构中的by短语,如无必要指出,则可省去。如:

  (5)I posted that letter last night. 我昨晚把那封信投邮了。(主动结构)

  (6)That letter was posted last night. 那封信是昨晚投邮的。(被动结构)

  如宾语是—that从句,变为被动语态时可用it作被动句的形式主语。如:

  (7)The know that he is an expert. 他们认为他是一位专家。(主动结构)

  (8)It is known that he is an expert. 人们认为他是一位专家。(被动结构)

  或把主动句中宾语从句的主语变为被动句的主语,宾语从句中的谓语部分变为不定式短语。如:

  (9)He is known to be an expert. 他被认为是一位专家。(被动结构)

  [注一]将主动句变为被动句时,偶尔可把by短语放在过去分记词之前,如He was by someone known to have worked for the German fascists.(有人知道他曾为德国法西斯干过事。)这里将by someone移至过去分词known之前显然是由于known和其后的to have worked的关系更为密切。有时by短语也可放在主语补语之后,如Tea drinking is considered one of the pleasures of life by the Chinese.(喝茶被中国人认为是一种人生乐趣。)。

  [注二]在较古的英语中,被动句中也可用of短语代替by短语。现仍见于少数一些说法中。如:

  ①He was beloved of everybody. 他受到大家的爱戴。

  ②He was devoured of a long dragon. 他被一长龙吞噬了。

  被动结构中的by短语并不一定总是代表动作的执行者,它有时也可表方式或原因。如:

  (10)A policeman is known by the clothes he wears. 警察可以从他穿的服装认出来。

  (11)I was very much flattered by his asking me to dance a second time. 我对他再次请我跳舞感到高兴。

  2)“主+ 谓+宾+宾”句型(一般地说一为间接宾语,一为直接宾语)变为被动结构时,只将主动结构中的一个宾语变为被动结构中的主语,另一宾语不变。这一保留不变的宾语叫做保留宾语(retained object)。如将主动结构中的直接宾语变为被动结构中的主语,间接宾语之前则应加介词to(可省去)或for(一般不可省)。如:

  (12)He told her a long story. 他给她讲了一个长故事。(主动结构)

  (13)She was told a long story. 她听了一个长故事。(被动结构)

  (14)A long story was told to her. 有人对她讲了一个长故事。(被动结构)

  (15)Mother bought me a new coat. 母亲给我买了件新上衣。(主动结构)

  (16)I was bought a new coat. 有人给我买了件新上衣。(被动结构)

  (17)A new coat was bought for me. 有人给我买了件新上衣。(被动结构)

  [注]被动句中强调间接宾语时,其前的介词to不可省去,如Ample warning was given to then, not to me.(受到严厉警告的是他们,不是我。)。

  上述句型中的两个宾语有时都是直接宾语。变为被动结构时,一般皆将主动结构中指人的宾语变为主语。如:

  (18)The teacher asked the students a very unusual question. 教师向学生提了一个很不寻常的问题。(主动结构)

  (19)The students were asked a very unusual question. 学生被问了一个很不寻常的问题。(被动结构)

  偶尔也可将主动结构中指物的宾语变为主语,但指人的保留宾语之前一般不可加任何介词。如:

  (20)He will forgive you your offence. 他将宽恕你的无礼。(主动结构)

  (21)Your offence will be forgiven you. 你的无礼将得到宽恕。(被动结构)

  3)“主+谓+复合宾语”句型(含有一个宾语加宾语补语)变为被动结构时,只将主动结构中的宾语变为被动结构中的主语,宾语补语不变。如:

  (22)They chose Tom captain. 他们选汤姆为队长。(主动结构,宾语补语为名词)

  (23)Tom was chosen captain. 汤姆被选为队长。(被动结构)

  (24)In spring, all the islanders paint their houses white. 春天的时候,所有岛民都把他们的房子涂成白色。(主动结构,宾语补语为形容词)

  (25)Their houses are painted white. 他们的房子被涂成白色。(被动结构)

  (26)They recognized him as a genius. 他们认为他是一个天才。(主动结构,宾语补语为介词短语)

  (27)He was recognized as a genius. 他被认为是一个天才。(被动结构)

  (28)We asked the teacher to explain the difficult sentences again. 我们要求教师再解释一下这些难句。(主动结构,宾语补语为不定式)

  (29)The teacher was asked to explain the difficult sentences again. 教师被要求再解释一下这些难句。(被动结构)

  (30)I found him lying on the floor. 我发现他躺在地板上。(主动结构,宾语补语为现在分词)

  (31)He was found lying on the floor. 他被发现躺在地板上。(被动结构)

  (32)We found all our seats occupied. 我们发现所有我们的位子都被占了。(主动结构,宾语补语为过去分词)

  (33)All our seats was found occupied. 所有我们的位子发现都被占了。(被动结构)

  但在下列情况下,主动句一般不能变为被动句:

  1)谓语是:

  a)及物动词leave,enter,reach,resemble,become(适合) suit,benefit,lack等。

  b)不可拆开的take place,lose heart,change colour,belong to,consist of等短语动词。

  2)宾语是:

  a)反身代词、相互代词、同源宾语、不定式、动名词等。

  b)虚词it,如cab it,foot it等。

  c)身体的某一部分,如shake one’s head等。

  d)某些抽象名词,如interest(兴趣)等。

  8.3 被动语态的用法

  英语里多用主动语态,但用被动语态的场合也不少,似乎要比汉语用得广泛。英语的被动语态常用于下列几种场合:

  1)当我们不知道动作的执行者时。如:

  (1)Printing was introduced into Europe from China. 印刷术是由中国传入欧洲的。

  (2)Look! There’s nothing here. Everything has been taken away. 看!这里什么也没有。一切都被拿走了。

  2)当我们不必要提出动作的执行者时。如:

  (3)I was born in 1960. 我生于1960年。

  (4)Such things are not done twice. 这种事不可再做。

  3)当我们强调或侧重动作的承受者时。如:

  (5)She is liked by everybody. 她为人人所喜欢。(强调she)

  (6)A good time was had by all. 大家都玩得很痛快。(侧重a good time)

  4)当我们出于礼貌避免说出动作的执行者时。如:

  (7)Where can you be reached? 哪里可以和你接头?(避免说出“我”)

  (8)You’ll be contacted. 我们会和你联系的。(避免说出“我们”)

  5)当我们出于行文的需要时。如:

  (9)The film was directed by Xie Jin. 该电影由谢晋导演。(上文谈的是该影片)

  (10)Helen was sent to the school by her parents when she was nine. 海伦九岁时被父母送到这座学校。(上文谈的是海伦)

  6)有些动词习惯上常用被动语态。如:

  (11)It’s done! (可缩略为Done!)成啦!(现在一般时被动式表动作已完成)

  (12)He is said to be a good teacher. 他被认为是一个好教师。

  (13)The line of flags was slung between two trees. 一列国旗挂在两树之间。

  (14)He was born in 1919. 他生于1919年。

  (15)She is reputed to be the best singer in Europe. 她被誉为是欧洲最佳歌手。

  [注]被动语态便于论述客观事实,故常用于科技文章、新闻报道、书刊介绍及景物描写。

  8.4 含被动意义的主动语态

  有些不及物动词(其主语大都指物)的主动语态可以表示被动意义。这种不及物动词有下列几种:

  1)某些连系动词。如smell,taste,sound,prove,feel等。

  (1)The flowers smell sweet. 这花儿很香。

  (2)The food tastes nice. 这食物的味道好。

  (3)That sounds very reasonable. 这话听上去很有道理。

  (4)The story proved quite false. 这一套话证实完全是假的。

  2)某些与can’t,won’t等连用的不及物动词,如move,lock,shut,open等。

  (5)It can’t move. 它不能动。

  (6)The door won’t shut. 这门关不上。

  3)某些可和well,easily等副词连用的不及物动词,如read,write,wash,clean,draw,burn,cook,photograph等。

  (7)The cloth washes well. 这种布料好洗。

  (8)The poem reads smoothly. 这首诗读起来很流畅。

  (9)The cistern doesn’t clean easily. 这水槽不容易弄干净。

  (10)This kind of rice cooks more quickly than that kind. 这种米做饭比那种熟得快。

  4)某些可用于“主+谓+主补”结构中的不及物动词,如wear,blow等。

  (11)This material has worn thin. 这种布料已穿薄了。

  (12)The door blew open. 门给吹开了。

  有些不及物动词的进行时亦具有被动意义。如:

  (13)Corn is selling briskly. 谷物畅销。

  [注] 上述不及物动词有些亦可用作及物动词,但二者有所不同。如:

  ①The door opened. 门开了。

  ②The door was opened. 门被打开了。

  例①强调the door本身内在的特性,表明“门”本身可开可关,不强调动作的执行者;例②则相反,强调“门被人打开了”,与门本身的特性无关。

  8.5 被动语态与系表结构的区别

  所谓系表结构,在此乃指“连系动词+用作表语的过去分词”结构。它与被动语态的形式完全一样,于是就有一个如何区别它们的问题。总的来说,它们有以下几点不同:

  1)被动语态中的过去分词是动词,表动作;系表结构中的过去分词相当于形容词,表状态。前者可用by短语表动作的执行者,后者则一般不用by短语。如:

  (1)The composition was written with great care. 这篇作文写得很用心。(被动语态)

  (2)The composition is well written. 这篇作文写得好。(系表结构)

  (3)These articles are sold quickly. 这些货物售得快。(被动语态)

  (4)These articles are all sold out. 这些货物全售出了。(系表结构)

  (5)Such questions are often settled through negotiations. 这类问题通常通过谈判解决。(被动语态)

  (6)The question is settled. 这个问题解决了。(系表结构)

  2)系表结构一般只用于现在一般时与过去一般时。被动语态则除可用于上述两种时态之外,还可用于其它时态。如:

  (7)I have been driven to it. 我是被迫至此。(被动结构)

  (8)The flowers will be planted next week. 下周种花。(被动结构)

  3)系表结构中的过去分词可被very所修饰;被动语态中的过去分词可用much修饰。试比较:

  (9)He was very agitated. 他很激动。(系表结构)

  (10)He was much agitated by the news. 他听到消息后很激动。(被动结构)

  4)系表结构有主动意义,被动结构只有被动意义。现将具有主动意义的系表结构举例说明如下:

  a)过去分词表心理、感情,如:

  (11)She is resolved to become a ballet dancer. 她决心当一名芭蕾舞演员。

  (12)I am quite puzzled. 我感到十分困惑。

  b)过去分词是反身动词,如:

  (13)The open square was bathed in light. 宽阔的广场淋浴在阳光中。(主动式是bathed itself)

  (14)The way was lost between the trees. 小路消失在树林之中。(主动式是lost itself)

  c)过去分词与介词搭配,如:

  (15)He was puzzled about it. 他为那件事感到困惑。

  (16)Are you interested in this subject? 你对这门课感兴趣吗?

  (17)We were surprised at the news. 我们对那消息感到惊讶。

  (18)She was scared out of her wits. 她吓得不知所措。

  (19)The child is accustomed to sleeping alone. 这孩子习惯独自睡了。

  [注]过去分词有时可后接with,也可后接by。一般来说,by强调动作,with强调状态,试比较:seized by a man 被人捉住,seized with a fever 发烧;covered by a lid 被盖子盖住,covered with a lid 为盖子所盖住

  5)有时只能从上下文才能加以区别。如:

  (20)The door was closed. 门关上了。

  (21)The road was mended. 路修好了。

  独立地看,上述两例,既可是被动结构,也可是系表结构。遇到这种情况,则应根据上下文去理解。

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