II. Grammar and Vocabulary
( A )
I am a British woman social anthropologist. I once spent a year in Moldova, in Eastern Europe, 1____________(study) everyday life in the country. I stayed with a Moldovan family to see from the inside how people managed their lives. I had a wonderful time and made many new friends. What I observed is of course based on my own experience at a particular place and time.
I often found 2_____________ surprisingly difficult to see life there through the eyes of a Moldovan. This was 3_____________ the people I met were extremely hospitable and I was treated as an honored guest at all times. As my hosts, they wanted me to enjoy myself, and not to get 4_____________(involve) in shopping, cooking, or other domestic jobs. Most mornings I was encouraged to go out to explore the city, or carry out my research, and I returned later to find that my elderly landlady and her sister had traveled across the city on buses to the central market 5_____________(bring) back heavy loads of potatoes, a whole lamb or other large quantities of products.
I was often invited to people’s homes, and was always offered food on entering. Most of the adults I met enjoyed inviting friends, family, neighbors, colleagues and even strangers into their homes, 6____________ they treated them to food, drink, and a lively hospitable atmosphere. Hosts hurried to serve guests as well and as quickly as possible. 7____________ a household was expecting guest, large amounts of food were prepared in advance, usually by the women. Wine had already been made, generally by the men, 8______________ were also responsible for pouring it. Unexpected visitors were still offered as mush food and drink as the household 9_____________ provide in the circumstances.
1. finding 2. it 3. because 4. involved 5. bringing 6. where
7. While 8. who 9. could
( B )
The majority of English families of the pre-industrial age, roughly until the mid-eighteenth century, lived in a rural location. Many of them owned or had the use of a small piece of land, and actually all family members were busy with agricultural work in one form or another, usually 1____________(grow) food for their own consumption and sometimes also producing food or other goods for sale.
The labor was controlled by the husband, 2______________ _____________ his wife and children, too, had an economic value as their contributions to the family income were likely to make the difference between starvation and survival.
Children worked from an early age, girls helping their mothers, and boys their fathers. School was an occasional factor in their lives. Instead, children learned by doing 3____________ their parents showed them. Knowledge of caring 4____________ animals, sewing was handed down from parent to child.
Also, most people engaged in handicraft production in the home, and the family 5____________ (pay) to work with cloth, wood or leather. In general, this work could be put aside and taken up again when there was a break such as agricultural work.
The process of industrialization in the second half of the eighteenth century and during the nineteenth transformed life for the majority of the population. It was the use of steam to power machinery 6____________ required large buildings, and it resulted in the construction of numerous factories in many towns and cities. These in turn 7_____________ (encourage) migration from the countryside in search of work. If electricity had preceded steam, domestic industry might have survived more fully.
1. growing 2. in which 3. what 4. for 5. was paid 6. that
Being sociable looks like a good way to add years to your life. Relationships with family, friends, neighbors, even pets, will all do the trick, but the biggest longevity boost seems to come from marriage or a(n) __1__ relationship. The effect was first __2__ in 1858 by William Farr, who wrote that widows and widowers were at a much higher risk of dying than the married people. Studies since then suggest that marriage could add as much as seven years to a man's life and two to a woman's. The effect __3__ for all causes of death, whether illness, accident or self-harm.
Marriage can do a lot. Linda Waite of the University of Chicago has found that a married older man with heart disease can __4__ to live nearly four years longer than an unmarried man with a healthy heart. Similarly, a married man who smokes more than a pack a day is likely to live as long as a divorced man who doesn't smoke. There's a flip side, however, as partners are more likely to become ill or die in the couple of years following their husband or wife's death, and caring for your husband or wife with mental disorder can leave you with some of the same __5__ problems. Even so, the chances favor marriage. In a 30-year study of more than 10,000 people, Nicholas Christakis of Harvard Medical School describes how all kinds of social networks have similar effects.
So how does it work? The effects are __6__, affected by socio-economic factors, health-service provision, emotional support and other more physiological mechanisms. For example, social contact can promote development of the brain and immune system, leading to better health and less chance of __7__ later in life. People in supportive relationships may __8__ stress better. Then there are the psychological benefits of a supportive partner.
A life partner, children and good friends are all __9__ if you aim to live to 100. The overall social network is still being __10__ out, but Christakis says:"People are inter-connected, so their health is inter-connected."
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III. Reading Comprehension
Who needs sleep?
It’s 2 a.m. The time when you should be in beds, sound asleep. But pull back the curtains and you might be surprised by the number of&