天坛中英导游词

2017-08-02 导游词

  我们应该了解天坛才能够为游客更好的介绍?下面是小编为大家整理的天坛中英导游词,以便各位了解!

  各位游客,我们今天所要参观的就是以前皇帝祭天的地方——天坛。

  Dear visitors, today we will visit the emperor worship was formerly place - the temple of heaven.

  明朝永乐皇帝迁都北京以后,在北京南城仿照南京的大祀殿建立了这作用于祭天的圣坛,占地面积达到了273万平方米。主建筑是大祀殿,也就是今天祈年殿的位置上。天坛有外坛墙和内坛墙,北面是圆形,南面是方形,取意天圆地方。在一开始,祭天和祭地都是天坛,直到明嘉靖年间在北城修建了地坛,才分开的,并且新增了圜丘坛,用于孟冬祭天,把原来的大祀殿改为大享殿,专门用于孟春祈谷,当时殿宇屋顶已经是三重檐了,从上至下的蓝黄绿三色瓦分别代表了天地万物。而在乾隆年间,有将大享殿改为现在的祈年殿,而将屋顶瓦片都改成了蓝色的琉璃瓦。从而形成了今天我们所看到的这个世界上最大的祭天建筑群。

  Ming yongle emperor after moved in Beijing enterprise of Beijing, the big site modeled nanjing is established for this role in praying to alter, covers an area of reached 273 million square meters. Lord architecture is big, is also the site of QiNianDian position today. The temple of heaven has outer wall and the altar, the north is round compound has wall, the south is square, take meaning nature round place. In the beginning, heaven and offering ground is the temple of heaven, until the jiajing years in beicheng built ditan, just separate, and new MengDong HuanQiu altar, for the original big praying to the site, and great temple, instead, when MengChun specially for the mega garden just house roof was three double-hipped roof, from top to bottom blue and yellow green colors representing the earthen universe. And in qianlong multiplied, instead of the house, and now QiNianDian with roof tiles blue glazed tile. Thus formed today what we see of the world's largest ceremonial buildings.

  可是这样一个祭天圣地,却也曾经在1860年时遭到英法联军的洗劫,继而在1900年的时候又遭到了八国联军的蹂躏。在1916年袁世凯登基的时候也曾经在天坛上演了一出祭天的闹剧。在1918年,天坛最终还是以公园开放。解放以后天坛不仅成了著名的旅游景点,而且还是北京城市绿地的组成部分,来这里的不光是旅游者,还不乏一些专门为了强身健体的老人们。

  But such a praying to the holy land, but also once was in the anglo-french allied in 1860, then the looted in 1900 was again the ravages of g8 coalition. In 1916 the reign of yuan shikai once also in the temple of heaven has played a ceremonial farce. In 1918, the temple of heaven park end up with open. After the liberation tiantan not only become the famous tourist attractions, and still part of the Beijing urban green space, come here not only is the tourists, also have some specifically for the old people vti).

  现在就让我们沿着当年皇帝登坛的路线开始此次游览。

  Now let's put the altar along the route that the emperor start the tour.

  现在我们正沿着天坛建筑的中轴线向南行进,将要看到的就是古代皇帝祭天的圜丘坛。圜丘有两道围护墙,使外方内圆,符合天圆地方的说法。每道墙都有四组棂星门,从东面依次是泰元、昭亨、广利、成贞,每组三门,共有24座,称为“云门玉立”。大家可以注意到,棂星门的大小都不一样,这是因为中门是上帝专用的,所以高大;皇帝只能从左侧的门进入;而其他的官员只能从右边最小的门通过。而门外的一座平台就是皇帝在祭天大典之前更换祭服和盥洗的地方,叫做具服台。来到了圜丘坛下,我们马上要开始登坛了,不过我请您留心每层坛面都要有多少台阶。到了最高层,大家也就都发现了,坛上所有的台阶数,护板数都是九或者九的倍数。每登上一层,都要有9层台阶,台面上的石板中间的叫做天心石,外围第一圈砌着9圈巨大的扇形石板,第二圈18块,以此类推,到了最外边的第九圈正好是81块;而大家抬头就可以看到的围护板被四面台阶分为四个部分,每个部分也都有9块,而中层的围护板是18块,下层的是27块,这些难道都是巧合么?当然不是,因为根据阴阳五行来说,9是极阳数,所以古代的工匠便用这个数字来赋予圜丘台意念上的崇高。

  Now we are temple buildings along the axis to the south road, are going to see is HuanQiu altar of ancient emperor worship. There are two ways HuanQiu surrounded wall, make foreign inside the circle, accord with that nature round place. Every wall all have four groups lingxingmeng, from east ordinal it is tai yuan, zhao heng, GuangLi, ChengZhen, each group sanmen, a total of 24 seats, called "cloud gate jade". You can notice, lingxingmeng size are different, this is because in door is god dedicated, so tall; Only from the door of the emperor into; But other officials can only from the right side of the door through the smallest. And the same platform is emperor ceremonies in worship before replacement offering clothing and wash one's hands and face with local, called served Taiwan. Came to HuanQiu altar, we'll start next put altar, but I please pay attention to each layer of how many steps square. To top it all, we also found, the altar all steps number, guard board number are nine or multiples of nine. Every board a layer, have 9 steps, mesa tablets of stone, called pure among the first lap the periphery of nine laps huge brick slab, the second lap fan 18 blocks, and so on, to most outside the 9th lap is just 81 block; And everybody looked can see enclosure panels were all steps is divided into four parts, each part also has nine pieces, while middle-level enclosure panel is 18 blocks, lower is 27 pieces, these aren't all be coincidence? Of course not, because according to the Yin yang-five elements, it is extremely Yang number nine, so ancient craftsman will use this digital to give HuanQiu sets the noble thoughts.

  说完了神坛的奇妙,我在给您介绍一下祭天大典的盛况。到了每年的冬至,皇帝就要在这里祭天。在大典前两天,皇帝要在故宫里进行斋戒,而到了第三天,也就是冬至前一天,就要到天坛的斋宫进行斋戒。冬至那天,在日出前七刻,现在的凌晨四点多,奏报时辰,皇帝起驾,斋宫东北角的钟楼开始鸣钟。到具服台盥洗更衣,神牌都送到台面相应的位置,也就是七组神位,称作七幄;在圜丘前燔柴炉上放一只牛犊,用松枝燔烧,西南的望灯杆望灯高悬,点燃蟠龙通宵宝蜡,台南广场上排列着奏乐队,配合着中和韶乐,在文武百官的'陪同下,祭天大典就正式开始了,皇帝由南棂星左门登坛,这时钟声停止,到了第二层南侧拜位站好后,听候司赞人报仪程。恭读至皇天上帝的祝文。礼仪结束以后,要将神位前的贡品分别送到燔柴炉(从正位幄次撤下的祭品再次焚烧,皇帝也要一旁恭立目视,称为望燎)和燎炉(圜丘坛共有12座燎炉,在瘗坎北侧,从东向西排列着8个;内围护墙东西棂星门外各有一对。从配位幄次车下的祭品分别送到8个燎炉内焚烧,而四个从位幄次的祭品送到棂星门处)焚烧,烟雾腾空,象征着送到天庭。而后还要将牛尾、牛毛、牛血送到瘗坎掩埋,象征不忘祖先茹毛饮血之意。在这个典礼上,需要特别提到的是皇帝恭读祝文所站立的地方,就是刚才所说的台面中心天心石。他是天坛三大声学现象之一。在这里朗读的时候声音特别洪亮,而且现在这里也是一样的,各位游客不妨体会一下这奇特的效果,也像当年的皇帝一样,向上天诉说自己美好的愿望。

  Had said of the shrines in my wonderful, and introduce you worship the pomp of the ceremonies. Each year the winter solstice, the emperor came in here to ceremonial. In two days ago, the emperor ceremonies in imperial palace for fast, and the third day, also of winter is just the day before, is going to the temple of heaven on ZhaiGong fast. The winter solstice, seven moment before sunrise, now more than four o 'clock in the morning, to make the report ZhaiGong hour, emperor drive, the bell tower of the northeast corner start tolling. To wash one's hands and face with clothing machine, god CARDS are sent to change clothes, and the homologous position mesa is seven group, called the magical seven bully; HuanQiu burnt stoves in before put a calf, with the burnt to burn, southwest of pine looked at high, lighting lamp light pole panlong all-night treasure wax, tainan square lined up, coordinating the instrument teams and shao music, accompanied by in baiguan, wenwu is formally started praying to the ceremony by south Ling star, emperor left the door when the bell stopped put the altar, to the second south after worship men standing at company who submitted process praise instrument. The revenue ZhuWen read to the god. Etiquette, will soon after the tributes to before respectively from is burnt wood furnace (a bully times removed offerings burn, the emperor will again stand aside, called hope benchi visual their) and liao furnace (HuanQiu altar, there are 12 seats in camp Yi their furnace from east to west and north are lined with 8; Ling star surrounded counterfort things within each have a pair from outside the coordination bully times. The car under tribute to eight wreathed respectively, while four furnace burning sacrifices from a bully times to lingxingmeng place), the smoke and fire to vacate symbol of heaven. Then even will oxtail, venues, cattle blood to Yi candy buried, the symbol of the RuMaoYinXie meaning not forgotten ancestors. In this ceremony, need special mention is the emperor ZhuWen standing by revenue read place, is said mesa center stone. The pure He is one of the three acoustic phenomena temple. Read here voice special loud, and now here is the same, dear visitors might as well enjoy this strange effect, also as did the emperor, like telling their beautiful upward days desire.

  现在咱们继续沿着中轴线行走,面前的建筑叫做天库,而它的正殿就是皇穹宇。皇穹宇建于明嘉靖九年,起初叫做泰神殿,到了十七年,改名为现在的皇穹宇,它的作用就是在平日存放圜丘坛祭祀主神的地方,所以这里也叫圜丘坛寝宫。殿内正面的圆形石台上安放的就是皇天上帝的神牌,而前边两侧的四个方形石台上安放的则是八位祖先神主,还有东西配殿用来存放从祀神位。而皇穹宇三个字也分别代表了至高无上,天,宇宙的意思,更加显示出它的神圣和至尊。

  Now let's continue to walk along the axis, the building called days before the library, and it is the main hall emperor vault and planet. Huang vault built during Ming, Mr. Nine temples, beginning to seventeen years called tiger was renamed the emperor, now, it's Mr. Arch effect is deposited on weekdays HuanQiu altar god places so sacrifice HuanQiu altar here also called palace. The circular stone temple positive on the lay of god is the god CARDS, but front on both sides of the four square stone was laid is something other gods, eight ancestors used to store enshrined in the holy warrior. But Mr. Emperor vault representing the three word of the universe, days, the supreme mean, more show its divine and sovereign.

  它是一座建筑艺术价值非常高的殿宇,总体呈圆形,下边是高2.85米的圆形须弥座,为青白石筑成,有东南西三个方向的出陛,也就是台阶,而在南向出陛还有二龙戏珠的丹陛石。上边是蓝色筒瓦单檐攒尖鎏金宝顶。而在殿内还有八根檐柱和八根金柱,大殿上架没有横梁承托,全都是靠各类斗拱层层上叠来支撑,步步收缩,从而形成了精美的穹隆圆顶。这里边还运用了物理学中的杠杆原理。这组建筑不仅十分精美,而且还有回音壁和三音石,这和刚才我们说的天心石合称天坛三大声学现象。回音壁就是皇穹宇的外墙,围墙建造的磨砖对缝,十分的平滑,是很好的声音载体,可以传声,在传递途中对声音损失极小,只要对着墙说话,就算相隔四五十米,见不到面,都可以清晰的听到对方说话。而三音石则是皇穹宇大殿正前方的三块石头,您站在第一块石头上拍手可以听到一次回音,第二块石头可以听到两次,而第三块就可以听到三次回音,所以称为三音石。在后来也有人把它叫做三才石,取天地人三才的意思。

  It is an architectural art value very high buildings, overall assumes the circular, underneath is high Xumi-seat 2.85 meters round for green, white, have built out of the three direction of southeast west Bi, namely the steps, and in south ErLongXiZhu Dan Bi and a Bi stone. TongWa single eaves above is blue top gold treasure. Zan point And in the temple and eight root eaves column and eight root JinZhu, hall, all without beam supporting 3.5-ounce by various Romanesque capitals which should support the fold layers, steps, thus creating the fine shrinking the vault of a dome. There are still applied physics of lever principle. This group of buildings, and there are not only very elegant stone, and three notes echo wall of this and we have just said three acoustic temple stone are pure phenomenon. Echo wall is the walls, Mr. Emperor vault built on the ground brick walls, very smooth seams, is very good sound carrier, can sound transmission of sound transmission way, in the small, as long as the loss of the wall, even forty or fifty metres apart speak, could not see noodles, can clear heard to talk to each other. And three notes Mr. Stone is the emperor vault front hall, you stand on three pieces of stone on the first stone clap your hands can hear a fruitless, second stone can hear twice, and the third piece can hear echo, so called three times three sound stone. In later also somebody call it three just stone, take three conditions to mean.

  也许您刚才就已经注意到了,天坛有非常多的柏树,不错,它就好像北京一个天然的氧吧。而在这许多古柏当中,有一株500余岁的桧柏,就是回音壁西墙外的这棵九龙柏。它的树干纹理非常的奇特,布满了沟壑,而且旋转扭曲,好像9条蟠龙缠绕嬉戏,所以叫它九龙柏真是一点也不过分。

  Perhaps you just have noticed, the temple of heaven has very many cedars and good, it's like Beijing a natural oxygen bar. And in that, there is a lot of cooper, the plant 500 years old, is GuiBai outside the western wall echo wall nine LongBai the tree. It is strange, trunk texture ravines, and full of rotating distortions, like nine coil dragon playing, so call it around nine LongBai really a little too much.

  到此,祈谷坛的主体建筑祈年殿就出现在我们面前了。祈年殿下的基座是三层的圆形石台,而在正面三层石台阶中,分别装饰着巨大的浮雕,叫做殿前丹陛石雕。从下之上内容分别是:瑞云山海,双凤山海,双龙山海。各层排水孔的图案和浮雕的内容也是对应的。东西两旁的配殿个有九间,原来是安放从祀牌位的地方,不过在家靖年间,把它们挪到了先农坛,所以现在这里也就没有什么实际用途了。而祈年殿本身就是一座极具中国特色的独特建筑。圆形三重檐攒尖屋顶向上层层收缩,都是用蓝色的琉璃瓦覆盖,以此来象征天。顶部是鎏金宝顶,抬头仰视,便是龙凤藻井,中心是龙凤成祥的图案。而巨大的三层殿顶就是靠殿内的28根落地柱支撑的,中间的四柱名叫龙井柱,东南西北方向分别代表了春夏秋冬;而龙井柱外围的12个红漆金柱所分割出来的12个开间,则分别代表了一年的12个月份;外面两环的24个开间有分别代表了一年的24个节气;同时,这28根大柱,也代表了天上的28个星宿。据说这祈年殿是仿照古代明堂设计建造的。在感叹殿内建筑的同时,也让我们把注意力逐渐转移到殿内的陈设上来。这里的陈设是按照清朝咸丰年间原状恢复的,正面的雕龙宝座上供奉着的是满汉合璧的皇天上帝神版,左右两侧的石台上供奉的是清朝前八位皇帝的牌位。

  To this, the main architecture of the altar mega garden just QiNianDian just appeared before us. QiNianDian base is under three layers of the circular stone stage three layers, and in front of the stone steps, decorated with great relief respectively, called before the house Dan Bi stone carvings. From the above content under is respectively: red sea, and ShuangFengShan yandang mountain, cloud dragon mountain. Each layer of osculum pattern and the content is also the corresponding relief. Things on both sides of the nine rooms, a warrior from original mantle after it, but where sacrificial jing years, put them at home XianNongTan moved to, so now here also there can be no actual use. And QiNianDian itself is a very unique architecture with Chinese features. Round three gates pointed up layer upon layer contraction zan, roof covered with blue glazed tile is, in order to symbolize days. The top is fine gold treasure top, looked up and look up, is longfeng sunk panel, the center is LongFengCheng auspicious patterns. And huge three layer on top of the house is where the root of 28, the middle ground pillars support the four pillars, southeast named longjing column representing the northwest of chun xiaqiu winter; And the 12 column longjing tea QiJinZhu periphery is broken out red 12 bay, represents a year respectively; 12 months Outside the two rings 24 bay have respectively represent a year of 24 solar terms; Meanwhile, the 28 root big column, also represents heaven 28 constellation. It is said that in ancient QiNianDian is modeled on MingTang designed and built. In the meanwhile, exclamation inside buildings also let us focus gradually transferred to the display up temple. The display is according to the qing dynasty here from the original recovery xian, positive carves dragon throne of which are full of god of the match well of the han dynasty about the stone tablets, on both sides of the eight honors before qing dynasty emperor mantle.

  和每年的祭天一样,这里是用来祈谷的地方。在祭祀的当天,有乐队在殿外月台上奏乐,身穿祭服的皇帝虔诚步入神殿,向牌位行大礼,祈祷上苍,然后把供品送到祈年门外东边的燔柴炉和燎炉焚烧,送上天宫。祈谷礼节和祭天的差不多。

  And every year as the worship, here is the place for mega garden just. The day in sacrifice in the temple, there is a band instrument, and the platform outside in offering clothing to enter temple, emperor devout shrine, pray god do, then presents the offerings to the east of outside the unlikelihood burnt wood in the furnace and furnace burn, send their heavenly palace. The mega garden just etiquette and praying to the same.

  到这里,祈年殿也差不多讲完了,而它还有一个附属建筑,作用和皇穹宇差不多,也是存放祈谷坛祭祀神主的地方,就是祈年殿北侧的皇干殿。

  Here, QiNianDian also almost finished, but it also has a subsidiary buildings, function and huang chun, also be stored as vault where sacrificial altar mega garden just QiNianDian gods, is at the north of the emperor dry temple.

  现在我们从祈谷坛的东门出来,可以看到一条连檐通脊的长廊,共有七十二间,俗称七十二连房,它不仅用来连接神厨神库,而且也是祭祀时运送祭品的通道,在长廊的东头,就是宰牲亭,就是前面所说过了鬼门关的牲畜要道这里来屠宰。而在长廊的东南方向,有八块巨大的青石,称为七星石,都是风水镇石。可是这里命名有八块石头为什么叫七星呢?原来明代在这里放的的确是七块石头,而最小的那一块则是清代增添上的。关于七星石的说法每个朝代都不同。在明代,有个道士和皇帝说祈年殿的方位不好,不利于国家,所以就在这里放了象征着北斗七星的七块石头。而在清代,康熙皇帝为了给满族爱新觉罗氏寻找从东北如主中原的理论依据,就派人考察山脉,发现泰山是长白山的余脉,所以就在原来七块石头的东北方有放了一小块儿青石,象征东北长白山,如果按这种说法,那八块石头就应该叫做七峰东岳。

  Now we from the altar eastward mega garden just come out, can see a long corridor coping of the ridge even between were 72, commonly known as seventy erlian room, it not only to connect to god, but also kitchen god kurnous sacrifice sacrifices in the channel, transport corridor, as it was customary to sacrifice the pavilion, is mentioned had guimen cattle slaughtered oceans here. And in the southeast direction, long corridor there were eight huge stone, stone, are called seven feng shui town stone. But here the naming there were eight stone why call seven-star? Originally the Ming dynasty put here are seven stones, and indeed is the smallest that piece is in qing dynasty add. Stone said about seven every dynasty are different. In the Ming dynasty, a Taoist and the emperor said QiNianDian orientation is bad, go against countries, so is here put the symbol of big dipper seven stones. And in qing dynasty, emperor kangxi to AiXinJiaoLuo's manchu from northeast if the main for the theoretical basis of the central plains, mountains, would send someone investigation found changbai mountain tai mountain is in the original so -odd arteries, northeast of the seven stones have put a small block of bluestone, the symbol of the northeast changbai mountain, if by this statement, that were eight stone should be called seven peak dongyue.

  暂且不管他们怎么定论了。今天的观光游览就要结束了,在天坛的这段时光希望能成为您北京之游中的永恒记忆。同时也请您把天坛的祝福带给您的家人朋友。

  No matter what they made up for. Today the sightseeing tourism will be over in the temple of heaven this time hope can become your Beijing trip to the permanent memory. Also please bring your temple of blessings to you family and friends.

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